2021/11/27 更新

写真a

ホンダ アキハル
本田 明治
HONDA Akiharu
所属
教育研究院 自然科学系 地球・生物科学系列 教授
自然科学研究科 環境科学専攻 教授
理学部 理学科 教授
職名
教授
通称等の別名
研究活動(論文,発表)では,「HONDA Meiji」,「ホンダ メイジ」と表記
外部リンク

学位

  • 博士(理学) ( 1996年12月   北海道大学 )

  • 修士(理学) ( 1993年3月   北海道大学 )

研究キーワード

  • 中高緯度

  • 雪氷

  • 北極

  • 地域

  • 災害

  • 気象

  • 異常気象

  • 海氷

  • 豪雨

  • 大気大循環

  • 竜巻

  • 豪雪

  • 突風

  • 寒冷渦

研究分野

  • 社会基盤(土木・建築・防災) / 防災工学

  • 自然科学一般 / 大気水圏科学

経歴(researchmap)

  • 新潟大学 理学部   教授

    2018年5月

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  • 新潟大学 理学部 准教授

    2009年6月 - 2018年4月

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  • 独立行政法人海洋研究開発機構   主任研究員

    2008年4月 - 2009年6月

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  • 独立行政法人海洋研究開発機構   研究員

    2004年7月 - 2008年3月

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  • 地球フロンティア研究システム   研究員

    1997年10月 - 2004年6月

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  • 日本学術振興会   特別研究員

    1996年1月 - 1997年9月

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▶ 全件表示

経歴

  • 新潟大学   自然科学研究科 環境科学専攻   教授

    2018年5月 - 現在

  • 新潟大学   理学部 理学科   教授

    2018年5月 - 現在

  • 新潟大学   理学部 理学科   准教授

    2017年4月 - 2018年4月

  • 新潟大学   自然科学研究科 環境科学専攻   准教授

    2010年4月 - 2018年4月

  • 新潟大学   物質循環科学   准教授

    2009年6月 - 2017年3月

学歴

  • 北海道大学   理学研究科博士後期課程   地球物理学専攻

    1993年4月 - 1996年12月

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    国名: 日本国

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  • 北海道大学   理学研究科博士前期課程   地球物理学専攻

    1991年4月 - 1993年3月

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  • 北海道大学   理学部   地球物理学科

    1987年4月 - 1991年3月

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    国名: 日本国

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所属学協会

  • 米国気象学会(American Meteorological Society)

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  • 米国地球物理学連合(American Geophysical Union)

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  • 日本気象学会

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  • 日本雪氷学会

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  • 日本地球惑星科学連合

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取得資格

  • 第二級陸上特殊無線技師

  • 高等学校教諭専修免許

  • 気象予報士

 

論文

  • Influence of low Arctic sea-ice minima on anomalously cold Eurasian winters 査読

    Meiji Honda, Jun Inoue, Shozo Yamane

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   36   L037079   2009年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    Influence of low Arctic sea-ice minima in early autumn on the wintertime climate over Eurasia is investigated. Observational evidence shows that significant cold anomalies over the Far East in early winter and zonally elongated cold anomalies from Europe to Far East in late winter are associated with the decrease of the Arctic sea-ice cover in the preceding summer-to-autumn seasons. Results from numerical experiments using an atmospheric general circulation model support these notions. The remote response in early winter is regarded as a stationary Rossby wave generated thermally through an anomalous turbulent heat fluxes as a result of anomalous ice-cover over the Barents-Kara Seas in late autumn, which tends to induce an amplification of the Siberian high causing colder conditions over the Far East. The late-winter cold anomalies over Eurasia are also reproduced in our experiment, which is associated with the negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Citation: Honda, M., J. Inoue, and S. Yamane (2009), Influence of low Arctic sea-ice minima on anomalously cold Eurasian winters, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08707, doi: 10.1029/2008GL037079.

    DOI: 10.1029/2008GL037079

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  • Interannual seesaw between the Aleutian and Icelandic lows. Part I: Seasonal dependence and life cycle 査読

    M Honda, H Nakamura, J Ukita, Kousaka, I, K Takeuchi

    JOURNAL OF CLIMATE   14 ( 6 )   1029 - 1042   2001年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC  

    The seasonal dependence and life cycle of the well-known interannual seesawlike oscillation between the intensities of the surface Aleutian and Icelandic lows (AL and IL, respectively) are investigated, based on the National Meteorological Center operational analyses for the period from 1973 to 1994. It is found that the correlation between the AL and IL intensities is significantly negative only from February to mid-March. It is also found that the seesaw exhibits an equivalent barotropic structure within the troposphere. For this late-winter period an index is defined that measures the intensity difference between the two lows. A linear lag regression analysis between this index and circulation anomalies averaged in each of the nine 45-day periods from early winter to midspring reveals that the stationary AL and IL anomalies constituting the seesaw do not start developing simultaneously over the respective ocean basins in the course of a particular winter season. Rather, the seesaw formation is initiated by the amplification of the AL anomalies with wave-activity accumulation in early through midwinter. In midwinter, part of the wave activity accumulated over the North Pacific propagates across North America in the form of a stationary Rossby wave train, which appears to trigger the formation of stationary anomalies over the North Atlantic. The IL anomalies thus initiated amplify and then become matured by late winter through the persistent feedback forcing from migratory eddies around the Atlantic storm track, while the AL anomalies remain strong until late winter through the continual feedback forcing from the Pacific storm track. It is suggested that interannual variability in the IL intensity for late winter tends to be strongly influenced by the AL anomalies that develop over the North Pacific in early through midwinter. The AL-IL seesaw is robust in a sense that it is apparent even after the influence of El Nino-Southern Oscillation is statistically removed from the data, suggestive of the importance of midlatitude processes in the seesaw formation.

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<1029:ISBTAA>2.0.CO;2

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  • Dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of atmospheric response to anomalous sea-ice extent in the Sea of Okhotsk 査読

    M Honda, K Yamazaki, H Nakamura, K Takeuchi

    JOURNAL OF CLIMATE   12 ( 12 )   3347 - 3358   1999年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC  

    Influence of sea-ice extent anomalies within the Sea of Okhotsk on the large-scale atmospheric circulation is investigated through an analysis of the dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of the response in an atmospheric general circulation model to specified anomalous sea-ice cover. Significant response appears not only around the Sea of Okhotsk, but also downstream over the Bering Sea, Alaska, and North America in the form of a stationary wave train in the troposphere. This remote response, associated with wave activity flux emanating from che Okhotsk area to the downstream, is regarded as a stationary Rossby wave generated thermally by the anomalous turbulent heat fluxes from the ocean surface as a result of the anomalous sea-ice cover. The Pacific storm track in the model that extends zonally at 35 degrees N is located too far south of the Sea of Okhotsk to exert substantial feedback forcing on the local and remote response. Since a similar stationary wave train is identified in the composite difference fields of the observed data between heavy and light ice years, it is believed that the model appropriately reproduces the real atmospheric response to the Okhotsk sea-ice extent anomalies. Simulated seesaws in the meridional surface wind and surface air temperature anomalies between the eastern Sea of Okhotsk and eastern Bering Sea associated with the local and remote response, respectively, to the Okhotsk sea-ice anomalies seem to be consistent with the observed seesaw in the anomalous sea-ice cover between these maritime regions. There is a hint of reinforcement of the remote response around the Alaskan Pacific coast through destabilization of barotropic Rossby waves due to the thermal damping effect associated with the anomalous atmosphere-ocean heat exchange both in the model and real atmosphere.

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<3347:DATCOA>2.0.CO;2

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  • Seamless Detection of Cutoff Lows and Preexisting Troughs 査読

    Satoru Kasuga, Meiji Honda, Jinro Ukita, Shozo Yamane, Hiroaki Kawase, Akira Yamazaki

    Monthly Weather Review   149 ( 9 )   3119 - 3134   2021年9月

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    担当区分:責任著者   記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:American Meteorological Society  

    <title>Abstract</title>We propose a new scheme based on geopotential height fields to detect cutoff lows starting in the preexisting trough stage. The intensity and scale derived from the proposed scheme will allow for a better understanding of the cutoff low life cycle. These cutoff lows often accompany mesoscale disturbances, causing adverse weather-related events, such as intense torrential rainfall and/or tornadoes. The proposed scheme quantifies the geometric features of a depression from its horizontal height profile. The height slope of a line intersecting the depression bottom and the nearest tangential point (optimal slope) locally indicates the intensity and scale of an isolated depression.

    The strength of the proposed scheme is that, by removing a local background height slope from a geopotential height field, the cutoff low and its preexisting trough are seamlessly detected as an identical depression. The distribution maps for the detected cutoff lows and preexisting troughs are illustrated along with their intensities, sizes, and local background flows estimated from snapshot height fields. We conducted climatological comparisons of cutoff lows to determine the utility of the proposed scheme.

    DOI: 10.1175/mwr-d-20-0255.1

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    その他リンク: https://journals.ametsoc.org/downloadpdf/journals/mwre/aop/MWR-D-20-0255.1/MWR-D-20-0255.1.xml

  • 日本海側での局所降雪分布と偏西風ジェットの変動及びブロッキングとの関係 査読

    山崎哲, 本田明治, 川瀬宏明

    気象集誌   97 ( 1 )   205 - 226   2019年2月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    日本海側の豪雪地帯での局所規模の降雪分布が,季節内時間スケールの偏西風ジェットの変動,特に,ユーラシア大陸を横切る旬(10日)スケールの準定常Rossby波と東アジア域でのブロッキングとを原因としていることがわかった.この研究では,日本の代表的な豪雪地帯として新潟域を対象とした.新潟の降雪分布として,先行研究に基づいて以下の3つの主要な降雪分布を定義した.(1)里雪型:沿岸域を中心に降雪が卓越する,(2)山雪型:内陸の山間部に降雪が卓越する,(3)里山雪型:新潟全域で降雪が発生する.<br />
    結果として,全ての降雪型で,日本上空での偏西風ジェットの南偏,あるいは大規模なトラフの強化(すなわち低気圧性偏差)が関係していた.このトラフの強化は,ユーラシア上空の偏西風ジェット(ユーラシアジェット)に沿って伝播する準定常Rossby波を起源としていた.また,この低気圧性偏差は,東シベリア域でのブロッキングの発生頻度が増加していたことから,ブロッキング低気圧にも関係していることがわかった.さらに,このトラフが強化されるメカニズムはそれぞれの降雪型で異なっていた.すなわち,シベリア域ブロッキング発生頻度増加位置の相対的な違いとユーラシアジェットに沿う準定常Rossby波束伝播の経路の違いとが見られた.つまり,全球再解析データで明白に区別できるほどの大規模循環の偏差によって日本海側での局所的な降雪分布が決定されることがわかった.

    DOI: 10.2151/jmsj.2019-012

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  • Poleward eddy heat flux anomalies associated with recent Arctic sea ice loss 査読

    Kazuhira Hoshi, Jinro Ukita, Meiji Honda, Katsushi Iwamoto, Tetsu Nakamura, Koji Yamazaki, Klaus Dethloff, Ralf Jaiser, Doerthe Handorf

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   44 ( 1 )   446 - 454   2017年1月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    Details of the characteristics of upward planetary wave propagation associated with Arctic sea ice loss under present climate conditions are examined using reanalysis data and simulation results. Recent Arctic sea ice loss results in increased stratospheric poleward eddy heat fluxes in the eastern and central Eurasia regions and enhanced upward propagation of planetary-scale waves in the stratosphere. A linear decomposition scheme reveals that this modulation of the planetary waves arises from coupling of the climatological planetary wavefield with temperature anomalies for the eastern Eurasia region and with meridional wind anomalies for the central Eurasia region. Propagation of stationary Rossby wave packets results in a dynamic link between these temperature and meridional wind anomalies with sea ice loss over the Barents-Kara Sea. The results provide strong evidence that recent Arctic sea ice loss significantly modulates atmospheric circulation in winter to modify poleward eddy heat fluxes so as to drive stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes.

    DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071893

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  • 2016/17年冬季の山陰地方に大雪をもたらした大気循環場の特徴

    本田 明治, 春日 悟, 山崎 哲, 河島 克久

    雪氷研究大会講演要旨集   2017   55 - 55   2017年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本雪氷学会/日本雪工学会  

    DOI: 10.14851/jcsir.2017.0_55

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  • 顕著大気追跡監視表示システムによる2016/17年冬季の山陰豪雪事例の解析

    春日 悟, 本田 明治, 浮田 甚郎

    雪氷研究大会講演要旨集   2017   56 - 56   2017年

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:公益社団法人 日本雪氷学会/日本雪工学会  

    DOI: 10.14851/jcsir.2017.0_56

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  • On the atmospheric response experiment to a Blue Arctic Ocean 査読

    Tetsu Nakamura, Koji Yamazaki, Meiji Honda, Jinro Ukita, Ralf Jaiser, Doerthe Handorf, Klaus Dethloff

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   43 ( 19 )   10394 - 10402   2016年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    We demonstrated atmospheric responses to a reduction in Arctic sea ice via simulations in which Arctic sea ice decreased stepwise from the present-day range to an ice-free range. In all cases, the tropospheric response exhibited a negative Arctic Oscillation (AO)-like pattern. An intensification of the climatological planetary-scale wave due to the present-day sea ice reduction on the Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean induced stratospheric polar vortex weakening and the subsequent negative AO. Conversely, strong Arctic warming due to ice-free conditions across the entire Arctic Ocean induced a weakening of the tropospheric westerlies corresponding to a negative AO without troposphere-stratosphere coupling, for which the planetary-scale wave response to a surface heat source extending to the Pacific side of the Arctic Ocean was responsible. Because the resultant negative AO-like response was accompanied by secondary circulation in the meridional plane, atmospheric heat transport into the Arctic increased, accelerating the Arctic amplification.

    DOI: 10.1002/2016GL070526

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  • The stratospheric pathway for Arctic impacts on midlatitude climate 査読

    Tetsu Nakamura, Koji Yamazaki, Katsushi Iwamoto, Meiji Honda, Yasunobu Miyoshi, Yasunobu Ogawa, Yoshihiro Tomikawa, Jinro Ukita

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   43 ( 7 )   3494 - 3501   2016年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    Recent evidence from both observations and model simulations suggests that an Arctic sea ice reduction tends to cause a negative Arctic Oscillation (AO) phase with severe winter weather in the Northern Hemisphere, which is often preceded by weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex. Although this evidence hints at a stratospheric involvement in the Arctic-midlatitude climate linkage, the exact role of the stratosphere remains elusive. Here we show that tropospheric AO response to the Arctic sea ice reduction largely disappears when suppressing the stratospheric wave mean flow interactions in numerical experiments. The results confirm a crucial role of the stratosphere in the sea ice impacts on the midlatitudes by coupling between the stratospheric polar vortex and planetary-scale waves. Those results and consistency with observation-based evidence suggest that a recent Arctic sea ice loss is linked to midlatitudes extreme weather events associated with the negative AO phase.

    DOI: 10.1002/2016GL068330

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  • Synoptic Conditions Causing an Extreme Snowfall Event in the Kanto-Koshin District of Japan on 14-15 February 2014 査読

    Meiji Honda, Akira Yamazaki, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Yusuke Kimura, Katsushi Iwamoto

    SOLA   12   259 - 264   2016年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:METEOROLOGICAL SOC JAPAN  

    Synoptic conditions causing an extreme snowfall event in the Kanto-Koshin district occurred on 14-15 February 2014 are investigated through a reanalysis data set. Associated with a developing cyclone passing the south coast of Japan, persistent snowfall exceeding more than 24 hours over the Kofu-Basin resulted in 112 cm snowfall at Kofu. Slow progress of the south-coast cyclone also contributed to the long snowfall duration. An anticyclone developed over the northern Japan (similar to 1032 hPa) also contributed to this extreme snowfall. This anticyclone brought warm and moist air inflow by southeasterlies forming moisture flux convergence over the Kanto-Koshin district on the morning of 14th when snowfall started in the Koshin district in spite that the south-coast cyclone was located to the south of Kyushu. Further, ageostrophic cold northerlies with high pressure extension from the anticyclone by "cold-air damming (CAD)" would suppress warming with the approaching south-coast cyclone and keep snowfall until the morning of 15th. In other four heavy snowfall events at Kofu, snowfall durations were almost 12 hours. Although anticyclone to the north and CAD were identified in each case, the moisture transport from the southeast was not evident and moisture flux convergence was not formed earlier.

    DOI: 10.2151/sola.2016-051

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  • Summer-to-Winter Sea-Ice Linkage between the Arctic Ocean and the Okhotsk Sea through Atmospheric Circulation 査読

    Masayo Ogi, Bunmei Taguchi, Meiji Honda, David G. Barber, Soren Rysgaard

    JOURNAL OF CLIMATE   28 ( 12 )   4971 - 4979   2015年6月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC  

    Contemporary climate science seeks to understand the rate and magnitude of a warming global climate and how it impacts regional variability and teleconnections. One of the key drivers of regional climate is the observed reduction in end of summer sea-ice extent over the Arctic. Here the authors show that interannual variations between the September Arctic sea-ice concentration, especially in the East Siberian Sea, and the maximum Okhotsk sea-ice extent in the following winter are positively correlated, which is not explained by the recent warming trend only. An increase of sea ice both in the East Siberian Sea and the Okhotsk Sea and corresponding atmospheric patterns, showing a seesaw between positive anomalies of sea level pressures over the Arctic Ocean and negative anomalies over the midlatitudes, are related to cold anomalies over the high-latitude Eurasian continent. The patterns of atmospheric circulation and air temperatures are similar to those of the annually integrated Arctic Oscillation (AO). The negative annual AO forms colder anomalies in autumn sea surface temperatures both over the East Siberian Sea and the Okhotsk Sea, which causes heavy sea-ice conditions in both seas through season-to-season persistence.

    DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00297.1

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  • A negative phase shift of the winter AO/NAO due to the recent Arctic sea-ice reduction in late autumn 査読

    Tetsu Nakamura, Koji Yamazaki, Katsushi Iwamoto, Meiji Honda, Yasunobu Miyoshi, Yasunobu Ogawa, Jinro Ukita

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES   120 ( 8 )   3209 - 3227   2015年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    This paper examines the possible linkage between the recent reduction in Arctic sea-ice extent and the wintertime Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Observational analyses using the ERA interim reanalysis and merged Hadley/Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature data reveal that a reduced (increased) sea-ice area in November leads to more negative (positive) phases of the AO and NAO in early and late winter, respectively. We simulate the atmospheric response to observed sea-ice anomalies using a high-top atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM for Earth Simulator, AFES version 4.1). The results from the simulation reveal that the recent Arctic sea-ice reduction results in cold winters in mid-latitude continental regions, which are linked to an anomalous circulation pattern similar to the negative phase of AO/NAO with an increased frequency of large negative AO events by a factor of over two. Associated with this negative AO/NAO phase, cold air advection from the Arctic to the mid-latitudes increases. We found that the stationary Rossby wave response to the sea-ice reduction in the Barents Sea region induces this anomalous circulation. We also found a positive feedback mechanism resulting from the anomalous meridional circulation that cools the mid-latitudes and warms the Arctic, which adds an extra heating to the Arctic air column equivalent to about 60% of the direct surface heat release from the sea-ice reduction. The results from this high-top model experiment also suggested a critical role of the stratosphere in deepening the tropospheric annular mode and modulation of the NAO in mid to late winter through stratosphere-troposphere coupling.

    DOI: 10.1002/2014JD022848

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  • Heavy Snowfall in Kanto and on the Pacific Ocean Side of Northern Japan Associated with Western Pacific Blocking 査読

    Akira Yamazaki, Meiji Honda, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida

    SOLA   11   59 - 64   2015年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:METEOROLOGICAL SOC JAPAN  

    The influence of large-scale atmospheric blocking over the northwestern Pacific on heavy snowfall events in the Kanto area and on the Pacific Ocean side of northern Japan (PNJ) within the time scale of similar to 10 days was examined through blocking case studies. The past 14 blocking cases over the Pacific, including the blocking during early- to mid-February 2014 that influenced a record-breaking snowfall over the Kanto area, were analyzed using a long-term reanalysis dataset and local meteorological observation station data. Results reveal that blocking over the Pacific causes large precipitation over the Kanto area and the PNJ by shifting cyclone (storm) tracks towards the east coast of Japan from their usual eastward course across the mid-Pacific via the south coast of Japan. Excessive passing of cyclones caused large precipitation in the Kanto area and snowfall in the PNJ. In the blocking cases with heavy snowfall events in the Kanto area, a strong cold-air inflow over Japan also existed in the lower troposphere originating from east Siberia, which initiated synoptic ground cold-air environments in the Kanto area.

    DOI: 10.2151/sola.2015-013

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  • Recurrence of Intraseasonal Cold Air Outbreak during the 2009/2010 Winter in Japan and its Ties to the Atmospheric Condition over the Barents-Kara Sea 査読

    Masatake E. Hori, Jun Inoue, Takashi Kikuchi, Meiji Honda, Yoshihiro Tachibana

    SOLA   7   25 - 28   2011年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:METEOROLOGICAL SOC JPN  

    In the winter of 2009/2010, Japan and the East Asian region experienced a frequent occurrence of cold air outbreaks. Although the winter average temperature in the Japan main islands was slightly positive (+0.81 degrees C for DJF average and +0.71 degrees C for NDJFM average), repeated decline in temperature was notable throughout the season. One explanation for this abnormal winter season is the extremely negative condition of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) that persisted from December to mid-January. However, AO alone does not provide sufficient explanation for the cold air outbreak during November or its intraseasonal periodicity. A case study of the cold air outbreak that reached Japan on Dec. 18 reveals an anomalous ridge forming over the Barents-Kara Sea, which leads to the cold air accumulation over western Siberia. The pressure anomaly subsequently shifted westward to mature into a blocking high which created a wave-train pattern downstream, advecting the cold air eastward towards East Asia and Japan. The sequence of events was also apparent in multiple cases throughout the season. This study suggests that there is a strong and systematic linkage in the intraseasonal timescale between the atmospheric condition over the Barents-Kara Sea and the cold air accumulation over the Eurasian continent, leading to the anomalous cold air outbreak over East Asia and Japan. The mechanism may also provide explanation to extreme winter conditions such as those observed during the winter of 2010/2011.

    DOI: 10.2151/sola.2011-007

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  • Northern hemisphere extratropical tropospheric planetary waves and their low-frequency variability: Their vertical structure and interaction with transient eddies and surface thermal contrasts 招待 査読

    Hisashi Nakamura, Takafumi Miyasaka, Yu Kosaka, Koutarou Takaya, Meiji Honda

    Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary?   189   149 - 179   2010年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:論文集(書籍)内論文   出版者・発行元:American Geophysical Union  

    DOI: 10.1029/2008gm000789

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  • Influence of the Aleutian-Icelandic Low Seesaw and ENSO onto the Stratosphere in Ensemble Winter Hindcasts 査読

    Yvan J. Orsolini, Nils Gunnar Kvamsto, Ina T. Kindem, Meiji Honda, Hisashi Nakamura

    JOURNAL OF THE METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   86 ( 5 )   817 - 825   2008年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:METEOROLOGICAL SOC JAPAN  

    Using an ensemble of wintertime hindcasts with a high-resolution (T106L60) Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) forced by observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and extending into the stratosphere, we investigate the formation and lifecycle of the Aleutian-Icelandic low Seesaw (AIS) during the 1978 to 1993 period. The AIS has been newly proposed to be an important mode of variability, linking the major wintertime surface lows, the Icelandic Low and the Aleutian Low, in late winter, and thereby linking climate variability over the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. We demonstrate for the first time with a stratosphere-troposphere model, that a coherent, ensemble-mean AIS extension into the stratosphere exists, where its presence modulates ultra-long planetary wave propagation and the polar night jet intensity. The model AIS peaks in February, when the Aleutian and Icelandic Low and-correlation maximizes at -0.59. The AIS provides a new way to describe the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon influence into the stratosphere, For example, El-Nino conditions correspond to a deeper than normal Aleutian Low, extending its influence into the Icelandic sector as an AIS negative phase (weakened Icelandic Low), hence enhanced planetary wave vertical propagation and a weakened stratospheric polar vortex. This maturation of the AIS in late winter explains the intra-seasonal variability of the stratospheric response to ENSO, which peaks in late winter. Internal model variability is large and enhanced potential predictability is found primarily in the western hemisphere, with a western Atlantic maxima being more pronounced in the stratosphere than in the upper troposphere.

    DOI: 10.2151/jmsj.86.817

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  • Inter-basin link between the North Pacific and North Atlantic in the upper tropospheric circulation: Its dominance and seasonal dependence 査読

    Meiji Honda, Shozo Yamane, Hisashi Nakamura

    JOURNAL OF THE METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   85 ( 6 )   899 - 908   2007年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:METEOROLOGICAL SOC JAPAN  

    Inter-basin links between the North Pacific and North Atlantic in the wintertime upper-tropospheric circulation over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere, including their structure, dominance and seasonal dependence, are examined based on the structures of the leading EOFs for monthly height anomalies for the second half of the last century. Dominant variability in the upper troposphere is found to reflect the corresponding modulations in the strength of the inter-basin dynamical link between the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The first and second EOFs for the upper troposphere represent hemispheric patterns, showing the coherent variability between the North Pacific and North Atlantic. They essentially reflect the respective out-of-phase and in-phase relationships between the Icelandic low (IL) and Aleutian low (AL), as upper-level manifestations of the AL-IL seesaw and the cold ocean-warm land (COWL) pattern, respectively. Dominance of the AL-IL seesaw in the upper-tropospheric leading EOF is a manifestation of a dynamical linkage between the North Atlantic Oscillation and Pacific-North American pattern. The manifestation of the COWL pattern in the second EOF is consistent with a pronounced wintertime warming trend over landmasses and concomitant deepening of the AL and IL observed in the last three decades. The seasonal evolution of the AL-IL seesaw and COWL pattern also manifest themselves in the seasonal modulations in the first and second EOFs of the upper-tropospheric variability, respectively.

    DOI: 10.2151/jmsj.85.899

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  • 中高緯度の季節内循環変動と異常天候―極東付近の冬季気候に関連して― 招待 査読

    本田明治, 高谷康太郎

    天気   54 ( 7 )   589 - 592   2007年7月

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    記述言語:日本語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • Northern Hemisphere sea ice variability: lag structure and its implications 査読

    Jinro Ukita, Meiji Honda, Hisashi Nakamura, Yoshihiro Tachibana, Donald J. Cavalieri, Claire L. Parkinson, Hiroshi Koide, Kentaro Yamamoto

    TELLUS SERIES A-DYNAMIC METEOROLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY   59 ( 2 )   261 - 272   2007年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:CO-ACTION PUBLISHING  

    An analysis of satellite sea-ice records for recent decades reveals a highly coherent spatial and temporal structure of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) wintertime sea-ice variability and its close link to anomalous atmospheric circulation. The dominant mode of the wintertime sea-ice variability is characterized by a double-dipole composed of one dipole over the North Atlantic and the other over the North Pacific, which are mutually correlated interannually. This dominant sea-ice mode is lag correlated with the winter-averaged North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index at lags up to two winters when the NAO leads. In the sub-Arctic, significant lead-lag relationships exist between sea-ice extent (SIE) anomalies on regional scales, which are closely associated with atmospheric circulation anomalies. An eastward evolving pattern is identified in regional SIE anomalies from the Labrador to Nordic and farther to the Okhotsk Sea at multi-year time-scales, led by anomalously weak Aleutian and strong Icelandic lows. The results suggest the presence of climate memories over the North Atlantic and Eurasia, which are crucial for recent downward trends in the NH SIE by transforming atmospheric influences into slower changes in sea-ice conditions. The summer Okhotsk high, which leads to a sea-ice reduction along the east Siberian coast and further affects sea-ice conditions over the Arctic Ocean, is a key link between summer Arctic and winter sub-Arctic sea-ice trends. We also conjecture that variations and changes in the NH sea-ice conditions are linked to climate variability in the tropics.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0870.2006.00223.x

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  • Intra-seasonal relationship between the Northern Hemisphere sea ice variability and the North Atlantic Oscillation 査読

    Kentaro Yamamoto, Yoshihiro Tachibana, Meiji Honda, Jinro Ukita

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   33 ( 14 )   L14711   2006年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    An intra-seasonal relationship, including a possible feedback, is investigated between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and a hemispheric-scale seesaw-like pattern dominant in sea ice variability over the wintertime Northern Hemisphere, with one polarity in the Bering and Labrador Seas and the other in the Okhotsk and Greenland-Barents Seas. Statistical analysis using observational data suggests that a particular phase of NAO and anomalous atmospheric circulation in the Pacific during early winter contribute toward the development of the midwinter hemispheric sea-ice seesaw. In contrast, the ice seesaw tends to damp the preexisting NAO signal during late winter, indicating a reversal of the phase relation between them. This NAO damping may be triggered by the Pacific sea-ice anomalies. Results from numerical experiments generally support this notion and further suggests a stationary Rossby wave train emanated from the North Pacific as a dynamical mechanism for damping the NAO signal.

    DOI: 10.1029/2006GL026286

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  • Influence of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode on ENSO by modulating westerly wind bursts 査読

    T Nakamura, Y Tachibana, M Honda, S Yamane

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   33 ( 7 )   L07709   2006年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    The influence of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode (NAM) on the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was examined using 41-year reanalysis data and an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). Significant lag correlations between the NAM index for spring and the Nino-3 index for the following winter were revealed. An anomalous lower tropospheric westerly associated with modulation of the westerly wind burst (WWB) over the western tropical Pacific in spring often coincided with the positive phase of the NAM and extended eastward during summer and autumn. Then, warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies reflecting El Nino appeared over the eastern tropical Pacific in early winter. In an AGCM experiment in which SSTs were fixed as a climatological-mean monthly distribution, the interannual modulation of WWB was significantly associated with NAM variability in spring, supporting the possible influence of the NAM in spring on an ENSO outbreak the following winter.

    DOI: 10.1029/2005GL025432

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  • Reexamination of the Northern Hemisphere Sea Level Pressure Variability by the Independent Component Analysis 査読

    Atsushi Mori, Nobuaki Kawasaki, Kensuke Yamazaki, Meiji Honda, Hisashi Nakamura

    SOLA   2   5 - 8   2006年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:METEOROLOGICAL SOC JPN  

    The results of the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis applied to the sea-level pressure (SLP) variability in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere is reexamined from viewpoint of statistical independence. For this purpose, "Independent Component Analysis" is introduced, whose effectiveness is demonstrated in its application to a set of simple hypothetical models. While its application to stratospheric variability confirms the relevance of the EOF analysis, its application to the SLP suggests that the two leading components of the EOF analysis are likely superpositions of two statistically independent signals. One of them represents a seesaw-like relationship in the intensities between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic lows, and the other is characterized by a significant long-term trend with the cold ocean-warm land pattern.

    DOI: 10.2151/sola.2006-002

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  • Impacts of the Aleutian-Icelandic low seesaw on surface climate during the twentieth century 査読

    M Honda, S Yamane, H Nakamura

    JOURNAL OF CLIMATE   18 ( 14 )   2793 - 2802   2005年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC  

    An interannual seesaw between the intensities of the Icelandic and Aleutian lows and its impact on surface climate observed during the twentieth century are investigated. In a recent period from the late 1960s to the early 1990s, their seesaw relationship was particularly apparent in late winter. The associated anomalies in surface air temperature were significant in many regions over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere except in central portions of the continents. The seesaw also modified the ocean-atmosphere exchange of heat and moisture extensively over the North Atlantic and North Pacific by changing evaporation and precipitation. Since the seesaw formation was triggered by eastward propagation of stationary Rossby wave trains from the North Pacific into the North Atlantic, anomalous circulation over the North Pacific in January was identified as a good precursor for February surface air temperatures in the Euro-Atlantic sector during that period.
    The seesaw relationship between the two lows underwent multidecadal modulations during the twentieth century. It was weak in the mid-1950s through the mid-1960s, while it was particularly strong during the preceding period from the 1920s to the 1940s with its impact on surface temperatures as extensive as in the recent period. Although it reached maturity in January, the precursory signal of the seesaw in that early period was also found in the North Pacific one month earlier, which suggests that the formation was through essentially the same mechanisms as in the recent period.

    DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3419.1

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  • Formation, mechanisms, and predictability of the Aleutian-Icelandic low seesaw in ensemble AGCM simulations 査読

    M Honda, Y Kushnir, H Nakamura, S Yamane, SE Zebiak

    JOURNAL OF CLIMATE   18 ( 9 )   1423 - 1434   2005年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC  

    The potential predictability associated with the remote influence of midlatitude tropospheric anomalies over the North Pacific or the North Atlantic via a seesawlike interannual oscillation between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic lows (AL and IL, respectively) is investigated. Data from a 24-member ensemble of 50-yr atmospheric general circulation model simulation forced with observed sea surface temperature (SST) conditions are analyzed by separating the total simulated fluctuations into the external component forced by the prescribed SST and the internal component generated by atmospheric internal dynamics. The AL-IL seesaw can be identified in both the external and internal components of the variability. In the external variability, determined through the ensemble mean, the seesaw is gradually formed from December to March through the development of a Pacific-North American (PNA) patternlike wave train, remotely forced by the El Ni (n) over tildeo-Southern Oscillation. The amplitudes of the externally forced North Atlantic anomalies are only about half as large as the North Pacific anomalies. The potential predictability of the Atlantic anomalies, defined as the ratio of the SST-forced variance to the total variance, does not exceed the 20% level. In the internal component of the variability, determined from the deviations of each ensemble member from the ensemble mean, the negative correlation between the AL and IL anomalies is modest but persistent through winter. It is confirmed that, regardless of the polarity of the AL-IL seesaw, the IL anomalies are formed through eastward wave activity propagation of the stationary Rossby wave train emanating from the AL region in the form of what may be called a '' PNAA pattern,'' the extension of the PNA-like wave train into the Atlantic. Thus, the midwinter development of North Pacific anomalies is found to be a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for the seesaw formation. The persistence of the North Pacific anomalies beyond a 1-month time span appears to augment the probability of the seesaw formation by sustaining eastward wave activity propagation to the North Atlantic.

    DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3353.1

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  • Characteristics of heat transfer over the ice covered Sea of Okhotsk during cold-air outbreaks 査読

    J Inoue, J Ono, Y Tachibana, M Honda, K Iwamoto, Y Fujiyoshi, K Takeuchi

    JOURNAL OF THE METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   81 ( 5 )   1057 - 1067   2003年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:METEOROLOGICAL SOC JPN  

    Heat transfer coefficients, and relative importance of factors affecting surface turbulent heat flux in sea-ice covered ocean, were investigated using data obtained by rawinsonde observations over, and around, the southwestern region of the Sea of Okhotsk from Jan. to Feb. in 1998, 1999 and 2000. The range of the fluxes estimated by an atmospheric heat budget analysis was large, associated with the ice concentration and synoptic situation. The turbulent heat fluxes from the open water surrounded by the sea ice are always positive (upward). However, the heat flux through sea-ice surface tends to be negative (downward) over sea-ice area associated with the relationship between the air and ice-surface temperature. Using the obtained turbulent heat fluxes and a bulk formula, relationships of turbulent heat fluxes with ice concentrations and atmospheric parameters were investigated, and a representative value of the bulk heat transfer coefficient was obtained. The estimated conditional bulk heat transfer coefficient (1.33 x 10(-3)) in the Sea of Okhotsk shows a smaller value than that in the Arctic region, reflecting the difference of the ice conditions, and thermal conditions in the boundary layer. Through an idea of the insulating coefficient, which measures degrees of the insulating effect of sea ice on the heat transfer, we explained that the sea ice works as a more effective insulator in weaker cold-air outbreaks. From a regression analysis, we found that the primary contribution to the amount of turbulent heat flux is the ice concentration, and second is the air temperature in the boundary layer.

    DOI: 10.2151/jmsj.81.1057

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  • アリューシャン・アイスランド両低気圧間のシーソー現象

    中村 尚, 本田明治, 山根省三, 大淵 済

    天気   49 ( 8 )   701 - 709   2002年8月

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    記述言語:日本語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • Interannual seesaw between the Aleutian and Icelandic lows part III: Its influence upon the stratospheric variability 査読

    Hisashi Nakamura, Meiji Honda

    Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan   80 ( 4 B )   1051 - 1067   2002年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Meteorological Society of Japan  

    Three-dimensional structure of quasi-stationary circulation anomalies observed in the course of a typical life cycle of an interannual seesaw between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic lows (AL and IL, respectively) is examined by using a reanalysis data set for the last three decades. A diagnosis is applied in a particular framework where the 31-day mean anomalies are regarded as stationary Rossby waves embedded in the zonally varying climatological-mean flow. It reveals that the upward propagation of wave activity into the stratosphere occurs in late winter primarily from the tropospheric anomalies corresponding to the anomalous IL, which develops below the entrance region of the lower-stratospheric polar night jet as a remote influence from the North Pacific. Accordingly, the North Atlantic anomalies exhibit apparent amplification and westward phase tilt with height, whereas the North Pacific anomalies are much more like the external mode. It appears that, in the presence of the zonal wavenumber 1 (k = 1) component of the climatological-mean planetary waves, the polar-night jet over the Pacific is shifted too far north to allow the stationary anomalies associated with the anomalous AL to propagate upward as stationary Rossby waves. Unlike the predominant signal of the Arctic Oscillation (or annular mode) that alters the intensity of the polar vortex, the seesaw modifies the stratospheric planetary-wave patterns in a modest but significant manner. In late winter when the AL is weaker than normal associated with a particular phase of the seesaw, the k = 1 component is masked by the enhanced zonal wavenumber 2 (k = 2) component embedded in the intensified polar-night jet. In contrast, the predominant k = 1 component embedded in the relatively weak polar-night jet dominates over the diminished k = 2 component in late winter, when the AL is stronger associated with the other phase of the seesaw. Our examination of seven late-winter major events of stratospheric sudden warming over the three recent decades suggests that the polarity of the AL-IL seesaw might set up a condition of which planetary wave component (k = 1 or k = 2) is more strongly involved in a late-winter warming event.

    DOI: 10.2151/jmsj.80.1051

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  • Estimation of surface heat flux based on rawinsonde observation in the southwestern part of the Sea of Okhotsk under ice-covered condition 査読

    K Iwamoto, K Domon, M Honda, Y Tachibana, K Takeuchi

    JOURNAL OF THE METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   79 ( 2 )   687 - 694   2001年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:METEOROLOGICAL SOC JAPAN  

    Rawinsonde observation was performed in late January through early February in 1998 around the southwestern part of the Sea of Okhotsk to estimate the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat over the ice-covered ocean during the winter monsoon. Upstream cold and stable air mass originated from the Eurasian continent was significantly modified through heat and moisture supply from warm sea surface with offshore cold-air outbreaks, which consequently formed mixed layer characterized by neutral stability over downstream areas. Associated with reduction of the top of the mixed layer height through the observational period, estimated heat fluxes also decreased gradually from 210 W m(-2) to 30 W m(-2). These decrease tendencies of the mixed layer height and estimated heat fluxes may reflect the increase of the insulating effect of the sea-ice cover on heat and moisture exchanges between the atmosphere and ocean.

    DOI: 10.2151/jmsj.79.687

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  • Air mass transformation processes over the southwestern region of the ice-covered Sea of Okhotsk during cold air outbreaks 査読

    J Inoue, M Honda, M Kawashima

    JOURNAL OF THE METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   79 ( 2 )   657 - 670   2001年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:METEOROLOGICAL SOC JAPAN  

    Radio sounding and in-situ observations at land-based (26 January-11 February 1998) and ship stations (4-11 February 1998) were performed over the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk covered with sea ice to estimate turbulent heat flux and investigate characteristics of thermodynamic air mass transformation processes during cold-air outbreaks. Surface heat flux estimations were carried out using two indirect methods; an atmospheric heat budget analysis using the radio sounding data at three stations and a bulk method utilizing meteorological and sea ice thickness data obtained by the ship observations. The estimated total upward turbulent heat flux over the analyzed area was approximately 100 W m(-2) even within the intense cold-air outbreak period. The height of the mixing layer associated with this small amount of the heat flux is only about 1 km, which implies that sea ice acts as an insulating material between the ocean and atmosphere and thus significantly reduces the turbulent heat fluxes. Nevertheless, the upward turbulent heat flux from the ice surface was found to be non-negligible during cold-air outbreaks and it is suggested that the sea ice grows through the sea or ice surface cooling.

    DOI: 10.2151/jmsj.79.657

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  • Interannual seesaw between the Aleutian and Icelandic lows. Part II: Its significance in the interannual variability over the wintertime Northern Hemisphere 査読

    M Honda, H Nakamura

    JOURNAL OF CLIMATE   14 ( 24 )   4512 - 4529   2001年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC  

    Through analysis of observational data for the period of 1973-94, the late-winter formation of an interannual seesaw between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic lows (AL and IL, respectively) is shown to significantly impact the covariance structure of the leading mode of the interannual variability in the geopotential height field over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere. The tropospheric leading mode for early winter (November-January) is characterized by a polar-midlatitude dipole over the Euro-Atlantic sector with a high degree of the annularity, coupled with the anomalous lower-stratospheric polar vortex. Over the North Pacific, no significant anomalies are associated with this mode. After the formation of the AL-IL seesaw, however, the dipole no longer dominates in the upper-tropospheric variability. The dipole signature is masked in late winter (February-April) by the predominant combined signature of the so-called Pacific-North American pattern and a meridional dipole over the northwestern Atlantic as an upper-level manifestation of the seesaw. Though somewhat less pronounced, the leading mode of the near-surface variability is modified accordingly in late winter by the superposition of the distinct signature of the AL-IL seesaw. The annularity of the leading mode of the tropospheric variability is thus reduced in late winter, particularly at the upper levels. Nevertheless, because of the particular geographical alignment between the anomalous AL and IL, their seesaw changes the zonal wind coherently between the two ocean basins, yielding a strong projection on the meridional plane whose latitudinal profile is almost indistinguishable from the counterpart of the Arctic-midlatitude dipole.
    It is argued that what is called the Arctic oscillation in some recent literature, defined as the leading mode of the sea level pressure variability for the entire cold season, may be interpreted as a superposition of the AL-IL seesaw upon a dominant signal of the Arctic-midlatitude dipole. The corresponding leading mode for the upper troposphere primarily represents the variability associated with the seesaw. It is also argued that the late-winter tropospheric variability over the North Atlantic may not necessarily be associated with the Arctic-midlatitude dipole. The remote influence of the North Pacific variability accounts for as much as 30%-50% of the variance in the vicinity of the IL for the data period considered.

    DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<4512:ISBTAA>2.0.CO;2

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  • Influence of Okhotsk sea-ice extent on atmospheric circulation 査読

    M Honda, K Yamazaki, Y Tachibana, K Takeuchi

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS   23 ( 24 )   3595 - 3598   1996年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION  

    An atmospheric general circulation model was used to investigate the influence of Okhotsk sea ice on large-scale atmospheric circulation. Significant differences in the model responses between heavy and light ice cover are evident not only around the Sea of Okhotsk but also downstream towards North America in the form of a stationary wavetrain in the troposphere. Because the wave activity flux associated vith the wavetrain emanates downstream from the Sea of Okhotsk, this remote response is regarded as a stationary Rossby wave excited thermally through an anomalous surface heat flux over the Sea of Okhotsk. The wavetrain is thermally reinforced downstream by the anomalous heat flux associated with wind anomalies over the ocean surface, which are induced by the wavetrain itself.

    DOI: 10.1029/96GL03474

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  • The abrupt decrease of the sea ice over the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk in 1989 and its relation to the recent weakening of the Aleutian low 査読

    Y Tachibana, M Honda, K Takeuchi

    JOURNAL OF THE METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   74 ( 4 )   579 - 584   1996年8月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:METEOROLOGICAL SOC JAPAN  

    We investigated the interannual variation of the sea ice over the Sea of Okhotsk by using radar observation data and gridded ice-coverage data for the years 1969-1994. It became evident that the abrupt decrease of sea ice over the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk occurred in 1989, and that this reduced-ice condition has continued since then. In addition, the winter time Aleutian low has abruptly weakened since 1989. According to the lag-correlation analysis, this weakening has brought about the reduction in extent of the ice-coverage.

    DOI: 10.2151/jmsj1965.74.4_579

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  • The influences of the sea ice and wind field on the winter air temperature variation in Hokkaido 査読

    Honda, M, Y. Tachibana, M. Wakatsuchi

    Proceedings of. NIPR Symposium on Polar Meteorology and Glaciology   8   81 - 94   1994年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • 平田賞

    2013年9月   公益社団法人日本雪氷学会   海氷域変動が気象・気候に及ぼす影響のメカニズムの解明

    本田明治

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  • 大沼賞

    2013年5月   公益社団法人日本雪氷学会北信越支部   海氷域変動が気象・気候に及ぼす影響のメカニズムの解明

    本田明治

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共同研究・競争的資金等の研究

  • 極端気象がもたらす風水害の頻発化・激甚化で変わる地域社会の持続可能度評価

    研究課題/領域番号:21K18788  2021年7月 - 2024年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的研究(萌芽)  挑戦的研究(萌芽)

    本田 明治

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    配分額:6370000円 ( 直接経費:4900000円 、 間接経費:1470000円 )

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  • 梅雨前線の形成・変動の理解に向けた新しい気団形成論の構築

    研究課題/領域番号:21H00626  2021年4月 - 2025年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)  基盤研究(B)

    植田 宏昭, 本田 明治, 高谷 康太郎

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    配分額:17030000円 ( 直接経費:13100000円 、 間接経費:3930000円 )

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  • 東アジア縁辺海と大気の連鎖的双方向作用とモンスーン変調

    研究課題/領域番号:19H05698  2019年6月 - 2024年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 新学術領域研究(研究領域提案型)  新学術領域研究(研究領域提案型)

    立花 義裕, 柏野 祐二, 榎本 剛, 滝川 哲太郎, 本田 明治, 木田 新一郎, 相木 秀則, 加古 真一郎

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    配分額:157300000円 ( 直接経費:121000000円 、 間接経費:36300000円 )

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  • 寒冷渦が竜巻・突風現象発現の予測可能性に与える定量的評価

    研究課題/領域番号:17H02067  2017年4月 - 2021年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(B)  基盤研究(B)

    本田 明治, 山根 省三, 川瀬 宏明, 山崎 哲

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    配分額:14560000円 ( 直接経費:11200000円 、 間接経費:3360000円 )

    本研究は、災害をもたらす竜巻など突風現象の発現時にしばしば確認される対流圏上空に寒気を伴う低気圧である「寒冷渦」について、「偏西風蛇行~寒冷渦~竜巻・突風現象」の階層構造の特性を明らかにすることを第1の目的とし、竜巻・突風現象の発現により災害をもたらす寒冷渦を数日以上のリードタイムで検出・追跡し、一般社会への普及により災害リスクの軽減を目指すものである。また、地球温暖化に伴う寒冷渦の変動特性を明らかにし、温暖化時における竜巻・突風現象の発現特性変化の評価も目指している。
    いずれの目標・目的においても、寒冷渦の客観的指標を作成する必要があり昨年度より進めてきたが、本年度においてほぼ完成版とも言える寒冷渦指標構築の目処がたち、現在その実用化を目指して寒冷渦の発生や移動を自動で検出する寒冷渦追跡監視ツールを作成しているとともに、国際学術論文誌への投稿準備を進めている。具体的には、従来の寒冷渦指標が何らかの恣意的な基準や閾値によって寒冷渦の中心位置のみを求めるものであったのに対し、当研究における指標は、ある日時の気圧面高度分布の格子点値のみあれば求めることが可能で、更に時間・空間平均値など何らかの基準値からの偏差情報を必要とせず、寒冷渦の「中心位置」に加え「強度」及び「影響半径」も情報として得ることができる。更に寒冷渦形成前のトラフ(上空の気圧の谷)の抽出も可能であるため、災害をもたらすような寒冷渦検出・追跡のリードタイムの向上にも寄与するものである。今回利便性と信頼度の高い気圧面高度データによる指標化が成功したことで、当初予定していた渦位を用いた寒冷渦の新指標の作成は見送ることとした。またその他の予定していた計画においても、寒冷渦指標の良し悪しがいずれの結果にも影響を及ぼすことが危惧されたため、指標作成の進捗を見極めつつ、指標完成後の実施準備を進めた。

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  • 北極振動と南極振動の「メタ・テレコネクション」~両半球をつなぐ航路は何か~

    研究課題/領域番号:16K13880  2016年4月 - 2019年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 挑戦的萌芽研究  挑戦的萌芽研究

    立花 義裕, 本田 明治, 中村 哲, 山崎 孝治, 小松 謙介

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    配分額:3510000円 ( 直接経費:2700000円 、 間接経費:810000円 )

    北極振動は北半球で最も卓越する大気変動で,北半球の異常気象に影響する.一方,南半球には南極振動があり,オゾンホールとの強い関連から地球環境に極めて重要である.両極は地理学的に最も遠くに位置することから,両振動の共変の存在を調べた研究は無かった.
    本研究はこの2つの振動が同期して変動する仮説「メタ・テレコネクション」を提唱し,大気再解析・大循環モデルを用いた解析を行った.その結果,2月と10月は両振動が有意に正相関でシンクロしていたことを示した.またシンクロの原因として,片方の極で発生する成層圏突然昇温に伴う成層圏子午面循環が,熱帯の対流活動に影響し,反対の極へ遠隔的に影響する可能性を指摘した.

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  • 南岸低気圧による積雪分布の体系化とメソ気象モデルを用いたメッシュ積雪地図の作成

    研究課題/領域番号:15K01161  2015年4月 - 2018年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)  基盤研究(C)

    伊豫部 勉, 河島 克久, 本田 明治, 松元 高峰

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    配分額:4290000円 ( 直接経費:3300000円 、 間接経費:990000円 )

    太平洋側地域にもたらされる大雪は,南岸低気圧の進路によって降雪域と降雪強度が大きく変化するため,詳細な実態把握が難しい.本研究は,太平洋側地域645地点の積雪委託観測資料(気象庁:1977~2002年)を整理することにより,年最深積雪や日最大降雪深の空間分布を南岸低気圧の移動経路との関係から分析した.その結果,南岸低気圧による大雪の発現頻度の空間分布は,地域によって大きな差があること,また山地における積雪分布には標高依存性が認められるものの,標高に対する積雪深の変化率は日本海側地域で得られた値に比べて小さいことが明らかとなった.

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  • 2014年2月14-16日の関東甲信地方を中心とした広域雪氷災害に関する調査研究

    研究課題/領域番号:25900003  2014年4月 - 2015年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 特別研究促進費  特別研究促進費

    和泉 薫, 中井 専人, 上野 健一, 河島 克久, 伊豫部 勉, 上石 勲, 小杉 健二, 秋山 一弥, 井良沢 直也, 後藤 聡, 若井 明彦, 沼野 夏生, 上村 靖司, 高橋 徹, 植松 康, 井上 聡, 森山 英樹, 福原 輝幸, 山口 悟, 西村 浩一, 小田 憲一, 本田 明治, 山崎 哲, 高倉 政寛

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    配分額:8100000円 ( 直接経費:8100000円 )

    2014年2月14-16日の南岸低気圧による関東甲信地方を中心とした大雪災害に対して、気象場及び降雪特性、広域積雪分布の把握及び積雪特性、雪崩災害、融雪災害、生活関連雪害、建築構造物雪害、農業被害、道路交通関係被害、雪崩ハザードマップ作成、メソ気象モデルによる再現実験と大気循環場解析について調査研究を行った。その結果、この災害をもたらした気象・積雪現象と各種災害の実態を明らかにするとともに、太平洋側地域における今後の雪対策を提言した。

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  • ブロッキングに先行するストームトラック変動の解明:メカニズムと予測可能性

    研究課題/領域番号:25800267  2013年4月 - 2016年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 若手研究(B)  若手研究(B)

    山崎 哲, 猪上 淳, 伊藤 久徳, 直江 寛明, 本田 明治

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    配分額:3900000円 ( 直接経費:3000000円 、 間接経費:900000円 )

    中緯度偏西風の大蛇行現象であるブロッキングについて,ブロッキングの持続性・予測可能性変動が上流のストームトラック(移動性擾乱の活発域)とどのような関係があるかについて,データ分析と天気予報実験を通じて調査を行った.事例解析の結果,ブロッキングの持続はストームトラックとの相互作用によって支えられていること,ブロッキングの予測精度が下がるときにこの相互作用が一時的に弱くなることがわかった.
    ここでのデータ分析や予報実験のための大気再解析データや大循環モデルを用いて,中・高緯度での予報初期値の誤差がどのように伝播するのかを調べた.予報初期値の誤差は偏西風に乗って対流圏上部を伝播することがわかった.

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  • 近年頻発する局地的豪雪の実態解明と準リアルタイム解析システムの構築

    研究課題/領域番号:24540470  2012年4月 - 2015年3月

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)  基盤研究(C)

    本田 明治, 河島 克久, 中井 専人

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    配分額:5070000円 ( 直接経費:3900000円 、 間接経費:1170000円 )

    2005/06年冬以降に頻発する局地的豪雪のメカニズム解明に向けて、複数の事例解析と数値実験により、近年の北極域変動に伴い日本を含む極東一帯には寒気が南下しやすく日本周辺の寒気変質過程が活発化していること、更に海面水温分布や地形性効果によって局地的豪雪が発生していることが分かってきた。また豪雪事例など顕著大気現象を準リアルタイムで解析及び数値実験で検証可能なデータ統合解析システムを構築した。

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  • 最新の全球大気再解析データを活用した対流圏循環の形成と変動に関する総合的研究

    研究課題/領域番号:18204044  2006年 - 2009年

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(A)  基盤研究(A)

    中村 尚, 高藪 縁, 向川 均, 廣岡 俊彦, 谷本 陽一, 本田 明治, 山根 省三, 高谷 康太郎, 釜堀 弘隆, 千葉 長, 筒井 純一, 山崎 信雄, 大野木 和敏, 初鹿 宏壮

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    配分額:48620000円 ( 直接経費:37400000円 、 間接経費:11220000円 )

    気象庁作成による最新の全球大気再解析デーとアンサンブル予報データの解析,最新の数値モデリングとを有機的に結合し,(1)中緯度海洋前線帯における大気海洋相互作用が移動性高低気圧活動の維持とジェット気流の形成,その卓越変動に不可欠という新しい大気大循環論の創出,(2)夏季小笠原高気圧の変動をもたらす2つの循環変動パターンの力学を力学モードの観点からの解明,(3)南半球の亜熱帯高気圧の形成機構の解明,(4)停滞性ロスビー波束を介した対流圏・成層圏結合変動の予測可能性の評価等,数々の重要な成果を挙げた.

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  • 「冷える海洋-暖まる大陸」パターンの力学的メカニズムの解明

    研究課題/領域番号:18540441  2006年 - 2008年

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業 基盤研究(C)  基盤研究(C)

    本田 明治, 山根 省三, 高谷 康太郎, 中村 尚

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    配分額:3960000円 ( 直接経費:3300000円 、 間接経費:660000円 )

    :「冷える海洋-暖まる大陸」パターン、いわゆるCOWLパターンの空間構造の特徴やその力学的メカニズムの解明に取り組んだ。
    再解析データを用いた解析でCOWLは対流圏循環場ではアリューシャン・アイスランド低気圧シーソーに続いて2番目に卓越するモードとして抽出され、長期的なユーラシア及び北米大陸上の昇温傾向に伴って近年の両低気圧の強化傾向を伴っていることが確認された。
    一方近年の北半球雪氷圏の急変に伴ってCOWLの変動特性にも影響が現れていることが分かった。

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