2022/12/01 更新

写真a

カンキ トモタケ
神吉 智丈
KANKI Tomotake
所属
教育研究院 医歯学系 医学系列 教授
医歯学総合研究科 生体機能調節医学専攻 腎科学 教授
職名
教授
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外部リンク

学位

  • 博士(医学) ( 2003年3月   九州大学 )

研究キーワード

  • マイトファジー

  • オートファジー

  • ミトコンドリア

研究分野

  • ライフサイエンス / 細胞生物学

  • ライフサイエンス / 医化学

  • ライフサイエンス / 病態医化学

経歴(researchmap)

  • 新潟大学大学院医歯学総合研究科・教授   Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

    2015年4月 - 現在

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  • 新潟大学大学院医歯学総合研究科・テニュアトラック教授   Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

    2012年7月 - 2015年3月

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  • 九州大学病院検査部・助教

    2009年4月 - 2012年6月

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  • ミシガン大学博士研究員

    2007年4月 - 2009年3月

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  • コロンビア大学博士研究員

    2005年10月 - 2007年3月

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  • 九州大学大学院医学研究科研究員

    2003年4月 - 2005年10月

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  • 九州大学医学部附属病院 産婦人科

    1999年4月 - 1999年6月

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  • 福岡市民病院 産婦人科,医員

    1997年7月 - 2000年3月

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  • 九州大学医学部付属病院等で研修医

    1997年5月 - 1999年3月

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経歴

  • 新潟大学   医歯学総合研究科 生体機能調節医学専攻 腎科学   教授

    2015年4月 - 現在

  • 新潟大学   経営戦略本部 若手研究者育成推進室   テニュアトラック教授

    2012年7月 - 2015年3月

学歴

  • 九州大学大学院医学研究科(博士(医学))

    2000年4月 - 2003年3月

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  • 九州大学医学部   School of Medicine

    1991年4月 - 1997年3月

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所属学協会

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留学歴

  • ミシガン大学   ポスドク

    2007年4月 - 2009年3月

  • コロンビア大学   ポスドク

    2005年10月 - 2007年3月

 

論文

  • Mitophagy in Yeast: Molecular Mechanism and Regulation

    Aleksei Innokentev, Tomotake Kanki

    Cells   10 ( 12 )   3569 - 3569   2021年12月

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:MDPI AG  

    Mitophagy is a type of autophagy that selectively degrades mitochondria. Mitochondria, known as the “powerhouse of the cell”, supply the majority of the energy required by cells. During energy production, mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as byproducts. The ROS damage mitochondria, and the damaged mitochondria further produce mitochondrial ROS. The increased mitochondrial ROS damage cellular components, including mitochondria themselves, and leads to diverse pathologies. Accordingly, it is crucial to eliminate excessive or damaged mitochondria to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis, in which mitophagy is believed to play a major role. Recently, the molecular mechanism and physiological role of mitophagy have been vigorously studied in yeast and mammalian cells. In yeast, Atg32 and Atg43, mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, were identified as mitophagy receptors in budding yeast and fission yeast, respectively. Here we summarize the molecular mechanisms of mitophagy in yeast, as revealed by the analysis of Atg32 and Atg43, and review recent progress in our understanding of mitophagy induction and regulation in yeast.

    DOI: 10.3390/cells10123569

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  • Fis1 ablation in the male germline disrupts mitochondrial morphology and mitophagy, and arrests spermatid maturation. 査読 国際誌

    Grigor Varuzhanyan, Mark S Ladinsky, Shun-Ichi Yamashita, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Tomotake Kanki, David C Chan

    Development (Cambridge, England)   148 ( 16 )   2021年8月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Male germline development involves choreographed changes to mitochondrial number, morphology and organization. Mitochondrial reorganization during spermatogenesis was recently shown to require mitochondrial fusion and fission. Mitophagy, the autophagic degradation of mitochondria, is another mechanism for controlling mitochondrial number and physiology, but its role during spermatogenesis is largely unknown. During post-meiotic spermatid development, restructuring of the mitochondrial network results in packing of mitochondria into a tight array in the sperm midpiece to fuel motility. Here, we show that disruption of mouse Fis1 in the male germline results in early spermatid arrest that is associated with increased mitochondrial content. Mutant spermatids coalesce into multinucleated giant cells that accumulate mitochondria of aberrant ultrastructure and numerous mitophagic and autophagic intermediates, suggesting a defect in mitophagy. We conclude that Fis1 regulates mitochondrial morphology and turnover to promote spermatid maturation.

    DOI: 10.1242/dev.199686

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  • The optineurin/TIA1 pathway inhibits aberrant stress granule formation and reduces ubiquitinated TDP-43. 査読 国際誌

    Taichi Kakihana, Masahiko Takahashi, Yoshinori Katsuragi, Shun-Ichi Yamashita, Junya Sango, Tomotake Kanki, Osamu Onodera, Masahiro Fujii

    iScience   24 ( 7 )   102733 - 102733   2021年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron disease characterized by the formation of cytoplasmic ubiquitinated TDP-43 protein aggregates in motor neurons. Stress granules (SGs) are stress-induced cytoplasmic protein aggregates containing various neuropathogenic proteins, including TDP-43. Several studies have suggested that SGs are the initial site of the formation of pathogenic ubiquitinated TDP-43 aggregates in ALS neurons. Mutations in the optineurin (OPTN) and TIA1 genes are causative factors of familial ALS with TDP-43 aggregation pathology. We found that both OPTN depletion and ALS-associated OPTN mutations upregulated the TIA1 level in cells recovered from heat shock, and this upregulated TIA1 increased the amount of ubiquitinated TDP-43. Ubiquitinated TDP-43 induced by OPTN depletion was localized in SGs. Our study suggests that ALS-associated loss-of-function mutants of OPTN increase the amount of ubiquitinated TDP-43 in neurons by increasing the expression of TIA1, thereby promoting the aggregation of ubiquitinated TDP-43.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.isci.2021.102733

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  • Membrane perturbation by lipidated Atg8 underlies autophagosome biogenesis. 査読 国際誌

    Tatsuro Maruyama, Jahangir Md Alam, Tomoyuki Fukuda, Shun Kageyama, Hiromi Kirisako, Yuki Ishii, Ichio Shimada, Yoshinori Ohsumi, Masaaki Komatsu, Tomotake Kanki, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Nobuo N Noda

    Nature structural & molecular biology   28 ( 7 )   583 - 593   2021年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Autophagosome biogenesis is an essential feature of autophagy. Lipidation of Atg8 plays a critical role in this process. Previous in vitro studies identified membrane tethering and hemi-fusion/fusion activities of Atg8, yet definitive roles in autophagosome biogenesis remained controversial. Here, we studied the effect of Atg8 lipidation on membrane structure. Lipidation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Atg8 on nonspherical giant vesicles induced dramatic vesicle deformation into a sphere with an out-bud. Solution NMR spectroscopy of Atg8 lipidated on nanodiscs identified two aromatic membrane-facing residues that mediate membrane-area expansion and fragmentation of giant vesicles in vitro. These residues also contribute to the in vivo maintenance of fragmented vacuolar morphology under stress in fission yeast, a moonlighting function of Atg8. Furthermore, these aromatic residues are crucial for the formation of a sufficient number of autophagosomes and regulate autophagosome size. Together, these data demonstrate that Atg8 can cause membrane perturbations that underlie efficient autophagosome biogenesis.

    DOI: 10.1038/s41594-021-00614-5

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  • Mitophagy reporter mouse analysis reveals increased mitophagy activity in disuse-induced muscle atrophy. 査読 国際誌

    Shun-Ichi Yamashita, Masanao Kyuuma, Keiichi Inoue, Yuki Hata, Ryu Kawada, Masaki Yamabi, Yasuyuki Fujii, Junko Sakagami, Tomoyuki Fukuda, Kentaro Furukawa, Satoshi Tsukamoto, Tomotake Kanki

    Journal of cellular physiology   2021年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Muscle disuse induces atrophy through increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from damaged mitochondria. Mitophagy, the autophagic degradation of mitochondria, is associated with increased ROS production. However, the mitophagy activity status during disuse-induced muscle atrophy has been a subject of debate. Here, we developed a new mitophagy reporter mouse line to examine how disuse affected mitophagy activity in skeletal muscles. Mice expressing tandem mCherry-EGFP proteins on mitochondria were then used to monitor the dynamics of mitophagy activity. The reporter mice demonstrated enhanced mitophagy activity and increased ROS production in atrophic soleus muscles following a 14-day hindlimb immobilization. Results also showed an increased expression of multiple mitophagy genes, including Bnip3, Bnip3l, and Park2. Our findings thus conclude that disuse enhances mitophagy activity and ROS production in atrophic skeletal muscles and suggests that mitophagy is a potential therapeutic target for disuse-induced muscle atrophy.

    DOI: 10.1002/jcp.30404

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  • Mitophagy regulation mediated by the Far complex in yeast. 国際誌

    Kentaro Furukawa, Aleksei Innokentev, Tomotake Kanki

    Autophagy   17 ( 4 )   1042 - 1043   2021年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) selectively degrades mitochondria and plays an important role in mitochondrial homeostasis. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the phosphorylation of the mitophagy receptor Atg32 by casein kinase 2 is essential for mitophagy, whereas this phosphorylation is counteracted by the protein phosphatase Ppg1. Although Ppg1 functions cooperatively with the Far complex (Far3, Far7, Far8, Vps64/Far9, Far10 and Far11), their relationship and the underlying phosphoregulatory mechanism of Atg32 remain unclear. Our recent study revealed: (i) the Far complex plays its localization-dependent roles, regulation of mitophagy and target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) signaling, via the mitochondria- and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Far complexes, respectively; (ii) Ppg1 and Far11 form a subcomplex, and Ppg1 activity is required to assemble the sub- and core-Far complexes; (iii) association and dissociation between the Far complex and Atg32 are crucial determinants for mitophagy regulation. Here, we summarize our findings and discuss unsolved issues.

    DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2021.1885184

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  • MITOL promotes cell survival by degrading Parkin during mitophagy. 査読 国際誌

    Isshin Shiiba, Keisuke Takeda, Shun Nagashima, Naoki Ito, Takeshi Tokuyama, Shun-Ichi Yamashita, Tomotake Kanki, Toru Komatsu, Yasuteru Urano, Yuuta Fujikawa, Ryoko Inatome, Shigeru Yanagi

    EMBO reports   22 ( 3 )   e49097   2021年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Parkin promotes cell survival by removing damaged mitochondria via mitophagy. However, although some studies have suggested that Parkin induces cell death, the regulatory mechanism underlying the dual role of Parkin remains unknown. Herein, we report that mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase (MITOL/MARCH5) regulates Parkin-mediated cell death through the FKBP38-dependent dynamic translocation from the mitochondria to the ER during mitophagy. Mechanistically, MITOL mediates ubiquitination of Parkin at lysine 220 residue, which promotes its proteasomal degradation, and thereby fine-tunes mitophagy by controlling the quantity of Parkin. Deletion of MITOL leads to accumulation of the phosphorylated active form of Parkin in the ER, resulting in FKBP38 degradation and enhanced cell death. Thus, we have shown that MITOL blocks Parkin-induced cell death, at least partially, by protecting FKBP38 from Parkin. Our findings unveil the regulation of the dual function of Parkin and provide a novel perspective on the pathogenesis of PD.

    DOI: 10.15252/embr.201949097

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  • Atg43, a novel autophagy-related protein, serves as a mitophagy receptor to bridge mitochondria with phagophores in fission yeast. 国際誌

    Tomoyuki Fukuda, Tomotake Kanki

    Autophagy   17 ( 3 )   826 - 827   2021年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Mitophagy is a selective type of autophagy in which damaged or unnecessary mitochondria are sequestered by double-membranous structures called phagophores and delivered to vacuoles/lysosomes for degradation. The molecular mechanisms underlying mitophagy have been studied extensively in budding yeast and mammalian cells. To gain more diverse insights, our recent study identified Atg43 as a mitophagy receptor in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Atg43 is localized on the mitochondrial outer membrane through the Mim1-Mim2 complex and binds to Atg8, a ubiquitin-like protein conjugated to phagophore membranes. Artificial tethering of Atg8 to mitochondria can bypass the requirement of Atg43 for mitophagy, suggesting that the main role of Atg43 in mitophagy is to stabilize phagophore expansion on mitochondria by interacting with Atg8. Atg43 shares no sequence similarity with mitophagy receptors in other organisms and has a mitophagy-independent function, raising the possibility that Atg43 has acquired the mitophagic function by convergent evolution.

    DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2021.1874662

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  • Tripartite suppression of fission yeast TORC1 signaling by the GATOR1-Sea3 complex, the TSC complex, and Gcn2 kinase. 査読 国際誌

    Tomoyuki Fukuda, Fajar Sofyantoro, Yen Teng Tai, Kim Hou Chia, Takato Matsuda, Takaaki Murase, Yuichi Morozumi, Hisashi Tatebe, Tomotake Kanki, Kazuhiro Shiozaki

    eLife   10   2021年2月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is controlled by the GATOR complex composed of the GATOR1 subcomplex and its inhibitor, the GATOR2 subcomplex, sensitive to amino acid starvation. Previously, we identified fission yeast GATOR1 that prevents deregulated activation of TORC1 (Chia et al., 2017). Here, we report identification and characterization of GATOR2 in fission yeast. Unexpectedly, the GATOR2 subunit Sea3, an ortholog of mammalian WDR59, is physically and functionally proximal to GATOR1, rather than GATOR2, attenuating TORC1 activity. The fission yeast GATOR complex is dispensable for TORC1 regulation in response to amino acid starvation, which instead activates the Gcn2 pathway to inhibit TORC1 and induce autophagy. On the other hand, nitrogen starvation suppresses TORC1 through the combined actions of the GATOR1-Sea3 complex, the Gcn2 pathway, and the TSC complex, another conserved TORC1 inhibitor. Thus, multiple, parallel signaling pathways implement negative regulation of TORC1 to ensure proper cellular starvation responses.

    DOI: 10.7554/eLife.60969

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  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)1. 国際誌

    Daniel J Klionsky, Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz, Sara Abdelfatah, Mahmoud Abdellatif, Asghar Abdoli, Steffen Abel, Hagai Abeliovich, Marie H Abildgaard, Yakubu Princely Abudu, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Iannis E Adamopoulos, Khosrow Adeli, Timon E Adolph, Annagrazia Adornetto, Elma Aflaki, Galila Agam, Anupam Agarwal, Bharat B Aggarwal, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Javed N Agrewala, Alexander Agrotis, Patricia V Aguilar, S Tariq Ahmad, Zubair M Ahmed, Ulises Ahumada-Castro, Sonja Aits, Shu Aizawa, Yunus Akkoc, Tonia Akoumianaki, Hafize Aysin Akpinar, Ahmed M Al-Abd, Lina Al-Akra, Abeer Al-Gharaibeh, Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali, Simon Alberti, Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez, Cristiano Alessandri, Muhammad Ali, M Abdul Alim Al-Bari, Saeb Aliwaini, Javad Alizadeh, Eugènia Almacellas, Alexandru Almasan, Alicia Alonso, Guillermo D Alonso, Nihal Altan-Bonnet, Dario C Altieri, Élida M C Álvarez, Sara Alves, Cristine Alves da Costa, Mazen M Alzaharna, Marialaura Amadio, Consuelo Amantini, Cristina Amaral, Susanna Ambrosio, Amal O Amer, Veena Ammanathan, Zhenyi An, Stig U Andersen, Shaida A Andrabi, Magaiver Andrade-Silva, Allen M Andres, Sabrina Angelini, David Ann, Uche C Anozie, Mohammad Y Ansari, Pedro Antas, Adam Antebi, Zuriñe Antón, Tahira Anwar, Lionel Apetoh, Nadezda Apostolova, Toshiyuki Araki, Yasuhiro Araki, Kohei Arasaki, Wagner L Araújo, Jun Araya, Catherine Arden, Maria-Angeles Arévalo, Sandro Arguelles, Esperanza Arias, Jyothi Arikkath, Hirokazu Arimoto, Aileen R Ariosa, Darius Armstrong-James, Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin, Angeles Aroca, Daniela S Arroyo, Ivica Arsov, Rubén Artero, Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro, Michael Aschner, Milad Ashrafizadeh, Osnat Ashur-Fabian, Atanas G Atanasov, Alicia K Au, Patrick Auberger, Holger W Auner, Laure Aurelian, Riccardo Autelli, Laura Avagliano, Yenniffer Ávalos, Sanja Aveic, Célia Alexandra Aveleira, Tamar Avin-Wittenberg, Yucel Aydin, Scott Ayton, Srinivas Ayyadevara, Maria Azzopardi, Misuzu Baba, Jonathan M Backer, Steven K Backues, Dong-Hun Bae, Ok-Nam Bae, Soo Han Bae, Eric H Baehrecke, Ahruem Baek, Seung-Hoon Baek, Sung Hee Baek, Giacinto Bagetta, Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna, Hua Bai, Jie Bai, Xiyuan Bai, Yidong Bai, Nandadulal Bairagi, Shounak Baksi, Teresa Balbi, Cosima T Baldari, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Maria Ballester, Salma Balazadeh, Rena Balzan, Rina Bandopadhyay, Sreeparna Banerjee, Sulagna Banerjee, Ágnes Bánréti, Yan Bao, Mauricio S Baptista, Alessandra Baracca, Cristiana Barbati, Ariadna Bargiela, Daniela Barilà, Peter G Barlow, Sami J Barmada, Esther Barreiro, George E Barreto, Jiri Bartek, Bonnie Bartel, Alberto Bartolome, Gaurav R Barve, Suresh H Basagoudanavar, Diane C Bassham, Robert C Bast Jr, Alakananda Basu, Henri Batoko, Isabella Batten, Etienne E Baulieu, Bradley L Baumgarner, Jagadeesh Bayry, Rupert Beale, Isabelle Beau, Florian Beaumatin, Luiz R G Bechara, George R Beck Jr, Michael F Beers, Jakob Begun, Christian Behrends, Georg M N Behrens, Roberto Bei, Eloy Bejarano, Shai Bel, Christian Behl, Amine Belaid, Naïma Belgareh-Touzé, Cristina Bellarosa, Francesca Belleudi, Melissa Belló Pérez, Raquel Bello-Morales, Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran, Sebastián Beltran, Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook, Mykolas Bendorius, Bruno A Benitez, Irene Benito-Cuesta, Julien Bensalem, Martin W Berchtold, Sabina Berezowska, Daniele Bergamaschi, Matteo Bergami, Andreas Bergmann, Laura Berliocchi, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent, Amélie Bernard, Lionel Berthoux, Cagri G Besirli, Sebastien Besteiro, Virginie M Betin, Rudi Beyaert, Jelena S Bezbradica, Kiran Bhaskar, Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova, Resham Bhattacharya, Sujoy Bhattacharya, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya, Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan, Sujit Kumar Bhutia, Lanrong Bi, Xiaolin Bi, Trevor J Biden, Krikor Bijian, Viktor A Billes, Nadine Binart, Claudia Bincoletto, Asa B Birgisdottir, Geir Bjorkoy, Gonzalo Blanco, Ana Blas-Garcia, Janusz Blasiak, Robert Blomgran, Klas Blomgren, Janice S Blum, Emilio Boada-Romero, Mirta Boban, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Philippe Boeuf, Barry Boland, Pascale Bomont, Paolo Bonaldo, Srinivasa Reddy Bonam, Laura Bonfili, Juan S Bonifacino, Brian A Boone, Martin D Bootman, Matteo Bordi, Christoph Borner, Beat C Bornhauser, Gautam Borthakur, Jürgen Bosch, Santanu Bose, Luis M Botana, Juan Botas, Chantal M Boulanger, Michael E Boulton, Mathieu Bourdenx, Benjamin Bourgeois, Nollaig M Bourke, Guilhem Bousquet, Patricia Boya, Peter V Bozhkov, Luiz H M Bozi, Tolga O Bozkurt, Doug E Brackney, Christian H Brandts, Ralf J Braun, Gerhard H Braus, Roberto Bravo-Sagua, José M Bravo-San Pedro, Patrick Brest, Marie-Agnès Bringer, Alfredo Briones-Herrera, V Courtney Broaddus, Peter Brodersen, Jeffrey L Brodsky, Steven L Brody, Paola G Bronson, Jeff M Bronstein, Carolyn N Brown, Rhoderick E Brown, Patricia C Brum, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Daniele Bruno, Robert J Bryson-Richardson, Cecilia Bucci, Carmen Buchrieser, Marta Bueno, Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina, Simone Buraschi, Shilpa Buch, J Ross Buchan, Erin M Buckingham, Hikmet Budak, Mauricio Budini, Geert Bultynck, Florin Burada, Joseph R Burgoyne, M Isabel Burón, Victor Bustos, Sabrina Büttner, Elena Butturini, Aaron Byrd, Isabel Cabas, Sandra Cabrera-Benitez, Ken Cadwell, Jingjing Cai, Lu Cai, Qian Cai, Montserrat Cairó, Jose A Calbet, Guy A Caldwell, Kim A Caldwell, Jarrod A Call, Riccardo Calvani, Ana C Calvo, Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera, Niels Os Camara, Jacques H Camonis, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Edward M Campbell, François-Xavier Campbell-Valois, Silvia Campello, Ilaria Campesi, Juliane C Campos, Olivier Camuzard, Jorge Cancino, Danilo Candido de Almeida, Laura Canesi, Isabella Caniggia, Barbara Canonico, Carles Cantí, Bin Cao, Michele Caraglia, Beatriz Caramés, Evie H Carchman, Elena Cardenal-Muñoz, Cesar Cardenas, Luis Cardenas, Sandra M Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Georges F Carle, Gillian Carleton, Silvia Carloni, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Leticia A Carneiro, Oliana Carnevali, Julian M Carosi, Serena Carra, Alice Carrier, Lucie Carrier, Bernadette Carroll, A Brent Carter, Andreia Neves Carvalho, Magali Casanova, Caty Casas, Josefina Casas, Chiara Cassioli, Eliseo F Castillo, Karen Castillo, Sonia Castillo-Lluva, Francesca Castoldi, Marco Castori, Ariel F Castro, Margarida Castro-Caldas, Javier Castro-Hernandez, Susana Castro-Obregon, Sergio D Catz, Claudia Cavadas, Federica Cavaliere, Gabriella Cavallini, Maria Cavinato, Maria L Cayuela, Paula Cebollada Rica, Valentina Cecarini, Francesco Cecconi, Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko, Simone Cenci, Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, João J Cerqueira, Janete M Cerutti, Davide Cervia, Vildan Bozok Cetintas, Silvia Cetrullo, Han-Jung Chae, Andrei S Chagin, Chee-Yin Chai, Gopal Chakrabarti, Oishee Chakrabarti, Tapas Chakraborty, Trinad Chakraborty, Mounia Chami, Georgios Chamilos, David W Chan, Edmond Y W Chan, Edward D Chan, H Y Edwin Chan, Helen H Chan, Hung Chan, Matthew T V Chan, Yau Sang Chan, Partha K Chandra, Chih-Peng Chang, Chunmei Chang, Hao-Chun Chang, Kai Chang, Jie Chao, Tracey Chapman, Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand, Samrat Chatterjee, Shail K Chaube, Anu Chaudhary, Santosh Chauhan, Edward Chaum, Frédéric Checler, Michael E Cheetham, Chang-Shi Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Jian-Fu Chen, Liam L Chen, Leilei Chen, Lin Chen, Mingliang Chen, Mu-Kuan Chen, Ning Chen, Quan Chen, Ruey-Hwa Chen, Shi Chen, Wei Chen, Weiqiang Chen, Xin-Ming Chen, Xiong-Wen Chen, Xu Chen, Yan Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Yue-Qin Chen, Zhefan Stephen Chen, Zhi Chen, Zhi-Hua Chen, Zhijian J Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Hanhua Cheng, Jun Cheng, Shi-Yuan Cheng, Wei Cheng, Xiaodong Cheng, Xiu-Tang Cheng, Yiyun Cheng, Zhiyong Cheng, Zhong Chen, Heesun Cheong, Jit Kong Cheong, Boris V Chernyak, Sara Cherry, Chi Fai Randy Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio Cheung, King-Ho Cheung, Eric Chevet, Richard J Chi, Alan Kwok Shing Chiang, Ferdinando Chiaradonna, Roberto Chiarelli, Mario Chiariello, Nathalia Chica, Susanna Chiocca, Mario Chiong, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Abhilash I Chiramel, Valerio Chiurchiù, Dong-Hyung Cho, Seong-Kyu Choe, Augustine M K Choi, Mary E Choi, Kamalika Roy Choudhury, Norman S Chow, Charleen T Chu, Jason P Chua, John Jia En Chua, Hyewon Chung, Kin Pan Chung, Seockhoon Chung, So-Hyang Chung, Yuen-Li Chung, Valentina Cianfanelli, Iwona A Ciechomska, Mariana Cifuentes, Laura Cinque, Sebahattin Cirak, Mara Cirone, Michael J Clague, Robert Clarke, Emilio Clementi, Eliana M Coccia, Patrice Codogno, Ehud Cohen, Mickael M Cohen, Tania Colasanti, Fiorella Colasuonno, Robert A Colbert, Anna Colell, Miodrag Čolić, Nuria S Coll, Mark O Collins, María I Colombo, Daniel A Colón-Ramos, Lydie Combaret, Sergio Comincini, Márcia R Cominetti, Antonella Consiglio, Andrea Conte, Fabrizio Conti, Viorica Raluca Contu, Mark R Cookson, Kevin M Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Dale P Corkery, Nils Cordes, Katia Cortese, Maria do Carmo Costa, Sarah Costantino, Paola Costelli, Ana Coto-Montes, Peter J Crack, Jose L 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Zientara-Rytter, Christine M Zimmermann, Elena Ziviani, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Dmitry B Zorov, Antonio Zorzano, Weiping Zou, Zhen Zou, Zhengzhi Zou, Steven Zuryn, Werner Zwerschke, Beate Brand-Saberi, X Charlie Dong, Chandra Shekar Kenchappa, Zuguo Li, Yong Lin, Shigeru Oshima, Yueguang Rong, Judith C Sluimer, Christina L Stallings, Chun-Kit Tong

    Autophagy   17 ( 1 )   1 - 382   2021年1月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.

    DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280

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  • Association and dissociation between the mitochondrial Far complex and Atg32 regulate mitophagy. 査読 国際誌

    Aleksei Innokentev, Kentaro Furukawa, Tomoyuki Fukuda, Tetsu Saigusa, Keiichi Inoue, Shun-Ichi Yamashita, Tomotake Kanki

    eLife   9   2020年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Mitophagy plays an important role in mitochondrial homeostasis. In yeast, the phosphorylation of the mitophagy receptor Atg32 by casein kinase 2 is essential for mitophagy. This phosphorylation is counteracted by the yeast equivalent of the STRIPAK complex consisting of the PP2A-like protein phosphatase Ppg1 and Far3-7-8-9-10-11 (Far complex), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that two subpopulations of the Far complex reside in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, respectively, and play distinct roles; the former inhibits mitophagy via Atg32 dephosphorylation, and the latter regulates TORC2 signaling. Ppg1 and Far11 form a subcomplex, and Ppg1 activity is required for the assembling integrity of Ppg1-Far11-Far8. The Far complex preferentially interacts with phosphorylated Atg32, and this interaction is weakened by mitophagy induction. Furthermore, the artificial tethering of Far8 to Atg32 prevents mitophagy. Taken together, the Ppg1-mediated Far complex formation and its dissociation from Atg32 are crucial for mitophagy regulation.

    DOI: 10.7554/eLife.63694

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  • Atg43 tethers isolation membranes to mitochondria to promote starvation-induced mitophagy in fission yeast. 査読 国際誌

    Tomoyuki Fukuda, Yuki Ebi, Tetsu Saigusa, Kentaro Furukawa, Shun-Ichi Yamashita, Keiichi Inoue, Daiki Kobayashi, Yutaka Yoshida, Tomotake Kanki

    eLife   9   2020年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Degradation of mitochondria through mitophagy contributes to the maintenance of mitochondrial function. In this study, we identified that Atg43, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, serves as a mitophagy receptor in the model organism Schizosaccharomyces pombe to promote the selective degradation of mitochondria. Atg43 contains an Atg8-family-interacting motif essential for mitophagy. Forced recruitment of Atg8 to mitochondria restores mitophagy in Atg43-deficient cells, suggesting that Atg43 tethers expanding isolation membranes to mitochondria. We found that the mitochondrial import factors, including the Mim1-Mim2 complex and Tom70, are crucial for mitophagy. Artificial mitochondrial loading of Atg43 bypasses the requirement of the import factors, suggesting that they contribute to mitophagy through Atg43. Atg43 not only maintains growth ability during starvation but also facilitates vegetative growth through its mitophagy-independent function. Thus, Atg43 is a useful model to study the mechanism and physiological roles, as well as the origin and evolution, of mitophagy in eukaryotes.

    DOI: 10.7554/eLife.61245

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  • FKBP8 LIRL-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation facilitates mitophagy under stress conditions. 査読 国際誌

    Seung-Min Yoo, Shun-Ichi Yamashita, Hyunjoo Kim, DoHyeong Na, Haneul Lee, Seo Jin Kim, Dong-Hyung Cho, Tomotake Kanki, Yong-Keun Jung

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology   34 ( 2 )   2944 - 2957   2020年2月

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    記述言語:英語  

    Mitochondrial quality control maintains mitochondrial function by regulating mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. Despite the identification of mitochondrial quality control factors, little is known about the crucial regulators coordinating both mitochondrial fission and mitophagy. Through a cell-based functional screening assay, FK506 binding protein 8 (FKBP8) was identified to target microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) to the mitochondria and to change mitochondrial morphology. Microscopy analysis revealed that the formation of tubular and enlarged mitochondria was observed in FKBP8 knockdown HeLa cells and the cortex of Fkbp8 heterozygote-knockout mouse embryos. Under iron depletion-induced stress, FKBP8 was recruited to the site of mitochondrial division through budding and colocalized with LC3. FKBP8 was also found to be required for mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy under hypoxic stress. Conversely, FKBP8 overexpression induced mitochondrial fragmentation in HeLa cells, human fibroblasts and mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), and this fragmentation occurred in Drp1 knockout MEF cells, FIP200 knockout HeLa cells and BNIP3/NIX double knockout HeLa cells, but not in Opa1 knockout MEFs. Interestingly, we found an LIR motif-like sequence (LIRL), as well as an LIR motif, at the N-terminus of FKBP8 and LIRL was essential for both inducing mitochondrial fragmentation and binding of FKBP8 to OPA1. Together, we suggest that FKBP8 plays an essential role in mitochondrial fragmentation through LIRL during mitophagy and this activity of FKBP8 together with LIR is required for mitophagy under stress conditions.

    DOI: 10.1096/fj.201901735R

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  • Gemcitabine induces Parkin-independent mitophagy through mitochondrial-resident E3 ligase MUL1-mediated stabilization of PINK1. 査読 国際誌

    Ryoko Igarashi, Shun-Ichi Yamashita, Tomohiro Yamashita, Keiichi Inoue, Tomoyuki Fukuda, Takeo Fukuchi, Tomotake Kanki

    Scientific reports   10 ( 1 )   1465 - 1465   2020年1月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Mitophagy plays an important role in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis. PTEN-induced kinase (PINK1), a key regulator of mitophagy, is degraded constitutively under steady-state conditions. During mitophagy, it becomes stabilized in the outer mitochondrial membrane, particularly under mitochondrial stress conditions, such as in treatment with uncouplers, generation of excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and formation of protein aggregates in mitochondria. Stabilized PINK1 recruits and activates E3 ligases, such as Parkin and mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase (MUL1), to ubiquitinate mitochondrial proteins and induce ubiquitin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we found that the anticancer drug gemcitabine induces the stabilization of PINK1 and subsequent mitophagy, even in the absence of Parkin. We also found that gemcitabine-induced stabilization of PINK1 was not accompanied by mitochondrial depolarization. Interestingly, the stabilization of PINK1 was mediated by MUL1. These results suggest that gemcitabine induces mitophagy through MUL1-mediated stabilization of PINK1 on the mitochondrial membrane independently of mitochondrial depolarization.

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  • Glaucoma-Associated Mutations in the Optineurin Gene Have Limited Impact on Parkin-Dependent Mitophagy. 査読

    Chernyshova K, Inoue K, Yamashita SI, Fukuchi T, Kanki T

    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science   60 ( 10 )   3625 - 3635   2019年8月

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1167/iovs.19-27184

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  • Regulatory Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Autophagy: Lessons From Yeast. 査読 国際誌

    Kentaro Furukawa, Aleksei Innokentev, Tomotake Kanki

    Frontiers in plant science   10   1479 - 1479   2019年

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    記述言語:英語  

    Mitochondria produce the majority of ATP required by cells via oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, regulation of mitochondrial quality and quantity is important for maintaining cellular activities. Mitophagy, the selective degradation of mitochondria, is thought to contribute to control of mitochondrial quality and quantity. In recent years, the molecular mechanism of mitophagy has been extensively studied in yeast and mammalian cells. In particular, identification of the mitophagy receptor Atg32 has contributed to substantial progress in understanding of mitophagy in yeast. This review summarizes the molecular mechanism of mitophagy in yeast and compares it to the mechanism of mitophagy in mammals. We also discuss the current understanding of mitophagy in plants.

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  • The PP2A-like Protein Phosphatase Ppg1 and the Far Complex Cooperatively Counteract CK2-Mediated Phosphorylation of Atg32 to Inhibit Mitophagy 査読

    Kentaro Furukawa, Tomoyuki Fukuda, Shun-ichi Yamashita, Tetsu Saigusa, Yusuke Kurihara, Yutaka Yoshida, Hiromi Kirisako, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Tomotake Kanki

    Cell Reports   23 ( 12 )   3579 - 3590   2018年6月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Elsevier B.V.  

    Mitophagy plays an important role in mitochondrial quality control. In yeast, phosphorylation of the mitophagy receptor Atg32 by casein kinase 2 (CK2) upon induction of mitophagy is a prerequisite for interaction of Atg32 with Atg11 (an adaptor protein for selective autophagy) and following delivery of mitochondria to the vacuole for degradation. Because CK2 is constitutively active, Atg32 phosphorylation must be precisely regulated to prevent unrequired mitophagy. We found that the PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A)-like protein phosphatase Ppg1 was essential for dephosphorylation of Atg32 and inhibited mitophagy. We identified the Far complex proteins, Far3, Far7, Far8, Far9, Far10, and Far11, as Ppg1-binding proteins. Deletion of Ppg1 or Far proteins accelerated mitophagy. Deletion of a cytoplasmic region (amino acid residues 151–200) of Atg32 caused the same phenotypes as in ppg1Δ cells, which suggested that dephosphorylation of Atg32 by Ppg1 required this region. Therefore, Ppg1 and the Far complex cooperatively dephosphorylate Atg32 to prevent excessive mitophagy. Mitophagy in yeast is initiated by CK2-mediated phosphorylation of the mitophagy receptor Atg32. However, how this phosphorylation is prevented under non-mitophagy-inducing conditions is unclear. Furukawa et al. show that the PP2A-like protein phosphatase Ppg1 and the Far complex negatively regulate mitophagy by counteracting CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Atg32.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.05.064

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  • Cdc14 Phosphatase Promotes TORC1-Regulated Autophagy in Yeast 査読

    Akihiro Kondo, Md. Golam Mostofa, Katsuya Miyake, Mashu Terasawa, Islam Nafisa, Akter M.S.T. Yeasmin, Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah, Tomotake Kanki, Takashi Ushimaru

    Journal of Molecular Biology   430 ( 11 )   1671 - 1684   2018年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Academic Press  

    Cdc14 protein phosphatase is critical for late mitosis progression in budding yeast, although its orthologs in other organisms, including mammalian cells, function as stress-responsive phosphatases. We found herein unexpected roles of Cdc14 in autophagy induction after nutrient starvation and target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) kinase inactivation. TORC1 kinase phosphorylates Atg13 to repress autophagy under nutrient-rich conditions, but if TORC1 becomes inactive upon nutrient starvation or rapamycin treatment, Atg13 is rapidly dephosphorylated and autophagy is induced. Cdc14 phosphatase was required for optimal Atg13 dephosphorylation, pre-autophagosomal structure formation, and autophagy induction after TORC1 inactivation. In addition, Cdc14 was required for sufficient induction of ATG8 and ATG13 expression. Moreover, Cdc14 activation provoked autophagy even under normal conditions. This study identified a novel role of Cdc14 as the stress-responsive phosphatase for autophagy induction in budding yeast.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2018.04.007

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  • Mechanisms and Physiological Roles of Mitophagy in Yeast. 査読

    Fukuda T, Kanki T

    Molecules and cells   41 ( 1 )   35 - 44   2018年1月

  • Detection of iron depletion- and hypoxia-induced mitophagy in mammalian cells 査読

    Shun-ichi Yamashita, Tomotake Kanki

    Methods in Molecular Biology   1782   315 - 324   2018年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:論文集(書籍)内論文   出版者・発行元:Humana Press Inc.  

    Mitochondrial autophagy or mitophagy is a process that selectively degrades mitochondria via autophagy. It is believed that mitophagy degrades damaged or unnecessary mitochondria and is important for maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. To date, it is known that several stimuli can induce mitophagy. However, some of these stimuli (including iron depletion, hypoxia, and nitrogen starvation) induce mild mitophagy, which is difficult to detect by measuring the decrease in mitochondrial mass. Recently, we have successfully detected mitophagy induced under these conditions using mito-Keima as a reporter. In this chapter, we describe the protocols for induction and detection of iron depletion- and hypoxia-induced mitophagy using the mito-Keima-expressing cells.

    DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7831-1_18

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  • PP2A-like protein phosphatase Ppg1: an emerging negative regulator of mitophagy in yeast. 査読

    Furukawa K, Kanki T

    Autophagy   14 ( 12 )   2171 - 2172   2018年

  • 正常眼圧緑内障を発症させるオプチニューリン遺伝子変異とミトコンドリア分解の関係

    クセニヤ・チェルヌショワ, 山下 俊一, 五十嵐 遼子, 福地 健郎, 神吉 智丈

    眼科臨床紀要   10 ( 8 )   691 - 692   2017年8月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:眼科臨床紀要会  

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  • Parkin非依存的マイトファジーにおけるPINK1の機能解析

    五十嵐 遼子, 山下 俊一, クセニヤ・チェルニショワ, 福地 健郎, 神吉 智丈

    眼科臨床紀要   10 ( 8 )   692 - 692   2017年8月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:眼科臨床紀要会  

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  • Mitophagy in Yeast: A Screen of Mitophagy-Deficient Mutants. 査読

    Furukawa K, Kanki T

    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)   2017年3月

  • Detection of Hypoxia-Induced and Iron Depletion-Induced Mitophagy in Mammalian Cells. 査読

    Yamashita SI, Kanki T

    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)   2017年3月

  • How autophagy eats large mitochondria: Autophagosome formation coupled with mitochondrial fragmentation 査読

    Shun-ichi Yamashita, Tomotake Kanki

    AUTOPHAGY   13 ( 5 )   980 - 981   2017年

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC  

    Mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) is thought to be a multi-step pathway wherein mitochondria are first divided into small fragments, which are subsequently recognized by the phagophore. DNM1L (dynamin 1 like) plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial division; however, its role in mitophagy remains controversial. In our recent study, we examined the contribution of DNM1L to mitophagy and showed that mitophagy and mitochondrial division occur even in DNM1L-defective cells. Furthermore, time-lapse imaging of mitophagy showed that DNM1L-independent mitochondrial division occurs concomitantly with autophagosome formation. Upstream factors of autophagosome formation, i.e., RB1CC1/FIP200, ATG14, and WIPIs, are required for mitochondrial division, whereas ATG5 and ATG3 are dispensable. These results indicate that a portion of the tubular mitochondria is first recognized and then divided into small fragments by a phagophore-mediated event, independently of DNM1L. This autophagic process suggests that autophagy has the potential to degrade substrates larger than autophagosomes.

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  • Mitochondrial division occurs concurrently with autophagosome formation but independently of Drp1 during mitophagy 査読

    Shun-ichi Yamashita, Xiulian Jin, Kentaro Furukawa, Maho Hamasaki, Akiko Nezu, Hidenori Otera, Tetsu Saigusa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Katsuyoshi Mihara, Tomotake Kanki

    JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY   215 ( 5 )   649 - 665   2016年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ROCKEFELLER UNIV PRESS  

    Mitophagy is thought to play an important role in mitochondrial quality control. Mitochondrial division is believed to occur first, and autophagosome formation subsequently occurs to enwrap mitochondria as a process of mitophagy. However, there has not been any temporal analysis of mitochondrial division and autophagosome formation in mitophagy. Therefore, the relationships among these processes remain unclear. We show that the mitochondrial division factor Dnm1 in yeast or Drp1 in mammalian cells is dispensable for mitophagy. Autophagosome formation factors, such as FIP200, ATG14, and WIPIs, were essential for the mitochondrial division for mitophagy. Live-cell imaging showed that isolation membranes formed on the mitochondria. A small portion of the mitochondria then divided from parental mitochondria simultaneously with the extension of isolation membranes and autophagosome formation. These findings suggest the presence of a mitophagy process in which mitochondrial division for mitophagy is accomplished together with autophagosome formation.

    DOI: 10.1083/jcb.201605093

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  • Constitutive Activation of PINK1 Protein Leads to Proteasome-mediated and Non-apoptotic Cell Death Independently of Mitochondrial Autophagy 査読

    Shiori Akabane, Kohei Matsuzaki, Shun-ichi Yamashita, Kana Arai, Kei Okatsu, Tomotake Kanki, Noriyuki Matsuda, Toshihiko Oka

    JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY   291 ( 31 )   16162 - 16174   2016年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC  

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a Ser/Thr kinase, and PARKIN, a ubiquitin ligase, are causal genes for autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that PINK1 and PARKIN cooperatively control the quality of the mitochondrial population via selective degradation of damaged mitochondria by autophagy. Here, we report that PINK1 and PARKIN induce cell death with a 12-h delay after mitochondrial depolarization, which differs from the time profile of selective autophagy of mitochondria. This type of cell death exhibited definite morphologic features such as plasma membrane rupture, was insensitive to a pan-caspase inhibitor, and did not involve mitochondrial permeability transition. Expression of a constitutively active form of PINK1 caused cell death in the presence of a pan-caspase inhibitor, irrespective of the mitochondrial membrane potential. PINK1-mediated cell death depended on the activities of PARKIN and proteasomes, but it was not affected by disruption of the genes required for autophagy. Furthermore, fluorescence and electron microscopic analyses revealed that mitochondria were still retained in the dead cells, indicating that PINK1-mediated cell death is not caused by mitochondrial loss. Our findings suggest that PINK1 and PARKIN play critical roles in selective cell death in which damaged mitochondria are retained, independent of mitochondrial autophagy.

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  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition). 査読 国際誌

    Daniel J Klionsky, Kotb Abdelmohsen, Akihisa Abe, Md Joynal Abedin, Hagai Abeliovich, Abraham Acevedo Arozena, Hiroaki Adachi, Christopher M Adams, Peter D Adams, Khosrow Adeli, Peter J Adhihetty, Sharon G Adler, Galila Agam, Rajesh Agarwal, Manish K Aghi, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Patricia V Aguilar, Julio Aguirre-Ghiso, Edoardo M Airoldi, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Emmanuel T Akporiaye, Mohamed Al-Rubeai, Guillermo M Albaiceta, Chris Albanese, Diego Albani, Matthew L Albert, Jesus Aldudo, Hana Algül, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Iraide Alloza, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Beceril, Emad S Alnemri, Covadonga Alonso, Nihal Altan-Bonnet, Dario C Altieri, Silvia Alvarez, Lydia Alvarez-Erviti, Sandro Alves, Giuseppina Amadoro, Atsuo Amano, Consuelo Amantini, Santiago Ambrosio, Ivano Amelio, Amal O Amer, Mohamed Amessou, Angelika Amon, Zhenyi An, Frank A Anania, Stig U Andersen, Usha P Andley, Catherine K Andreadi, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Alberto Anel, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Manuela Antonioli, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Saveria Aquila, Katia Aquilano, Koichi Araki, Eli Arama, Agustin Aranda, Jun Araya, Alexandre Arcaro, Esperanza Arias, Hirokazu Arimoto, Aileen R Ariosa, Jane L Armstrong, Thierry Arnould, Ivica Arsov, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Valerie Askanas, Eric Asselin, Ryuichiro Atarashi, Sally S Atherton, Julie D Atkin, Laura D Attardi, Patrick Auberger, Georg Auburger, Laure Aurelian, Riccardo Autelli, Laura Avagliano, Maria Laura Avantaggiati, Limor Avrahami, Suresh Awale, Neelam Azad, Tiziana Bachetti, Jonathan M Backer, Dong-Hun Bae, Jae-Sung Bae, Ok-Nam Bae, Soo Han Bae, Eric H Baehrecke, Seung-Hoon Baek, Stephen Baghdiguian, Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna, Hua Bai, Jie Bai, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Rena Balzan, Rajkumar Banerjee, Gábor Bánhegyi, Haijun Bao, Benoit Barbeau, Maria D Barrachina, Esther Barreiro, Bonnie Bartel, Alberto Bartolomé, Diane C Bassham, Maria Teresa Bassi, Robert C Bast Jr, Alakananda Basu, Maria Teresa Batista, Henri Batoko, Maurizio Battino, Kyle Bauckman, Bradley L Baumgarner, K Ulrich Bayer, Rupert Beale, Jean-François Beaulieu, George R Beck Jr, Christoph Becker, J David Beckham, Pierre-André Bédard, Patrick J Bednarski, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Georg Mn Behrens, Kevin E Behrns, Eloy Bejarano, Amine Belaid, Francesca Belleudi, Giovanni Bénard, Guy Berchem, Daniele Bergamaschi, Matteo Bergami, Ben Berkhout, Laura Berliocchi, Amélie Bernard, Monique Bernard, Francesca Bernassola, Anne Bertolotti, Amanda S Bess, Sébastien Besteiro, Saverio Bettuzzi, Savita Bhalla, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya, Sujit K Bhutia, Caroline Biagosch, Michele Wolfe Bianchi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Viktor Billes, Claudia Bincoletto, Baris Bingol, Sara W Bird, Marc Bitoun, Ivana Bjedov, Craig Blackstone, Lionel Blanc, Guillermo A Blanco, Heidi Kiil Blomhoff, Emilio Boada-Romero, Stefan Böckler, Marianne Boes, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Lawrence H Boise, Alessandra Bolino, Andrea Boman, Paolo Bonaldo, Matteo Bordi, Jürgen Bosch, Luis M Botana, Joelle Botti, German Bou, Marina Bouché, Marion Bouchecareilh, Marie-Josée Boucher, Michael E Boulton, Sebastien G Bouret, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan Brady, Vania Mm Braga, Claudio Brancolini, Gerhard H Braus, José M Bravo-San Pedro, Lisa A Brennan, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Marie-Agnès Bringer, Marisa Brini, Glauber C Brito, Bertha Brodin, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, Karen Brown, Hal E Broxmeyer, Alain Bruhat, Patricia Chakur Brum, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Robert J Bryson-Richardson, Shilpa Buch, Alastair M Buchan, Hikmet Budak, Dmitry V Bulavin, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Vladimir Bumbasirevic, Yan Burelle, Robert E Burke, Margit Burmeister, Peter Bütikofer, Laura Caberlotto, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jingjing Cai, Qian Cai, Sara Calatayud, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Grant R Campbell, Matthew Campbell, Silvia Campello, Robin Candau, Isabella Caniggia, Lavinia Cantoni, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Michele Caraglia, Claudio Cardinali, Sandra Morais Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Laura A Carleton, Cathleen R Carlin, Silvia Carloni, Sven R Carlsson, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Leticia Am Carneiro, Oliana Carnevali, Serena Carra, Alice Carrier, Bernadette Carroll, Caty Casas, Josefina Casas, Giuliana Cassinelli, Perrine Castets, Susana Castro-Obregon, Gabriella Cavallini, Isabella Ceccherini, Francesco Cecconi, Arthur I Cederbaum, Valentín Ceña, Simone Cenci, Claudia Cerella, Davide Cervia, Silvia Cetrullo, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Andrei S Chagin, Chee-Yin Chai, Gopal Chakrabarti, Georgios Chamilos, Edmond Yw Chan, Matthew Tv Chan, Dhyan Chandra, Pallavi Chandra, Chih-Peng Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Ta Yuan Chang, John C Chatham, Saurabh Chatterjee, Santosh Chauhan, Yongsheng Che, Michael E Cheetham, Rajkumar Cheluvappa, Chun-Jung Chen, Gang Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guoqiang Chen, Hongzhuan Chen, Jeff W Chen, Jian-Kang Chen, Min Chen, Mingzhou Chen, Peiwen Chen, Qi Chen, Quan Chen, Shang-Der Chen, Si Chen, Steve S-L Chen, Wei Chen, Wei-Jung Chen, Wen Qiang Chen, Wenli Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Yau-Hung Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yin Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongshun Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Yue-Qin Chen, Yujie Chen, Zhen Chen, Zhong Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher Hk Cheng, Hua Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Sara Cherry, Jason Chesney, Chun Hei Antonio Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hsiang Cheng Chi, Sung-Gil Chi, Fulvio Chiacchiera, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Mario Chiariello, Marcello Chieppa, Lih-Shen Chin, Mario Chiong, Gigi Nc Chiu, Dong-Hyung Cho, Ssang-Goo Cho, William C Cho, Yong-Yeon Cho, Young-Seok Cho, Augustine Mk Choi, Eui-Ju Choi, Eun-Kyoung Choi, Jayoung Choi, Mary E Choi, Seung-Il Choi, Tsui-Fen Chou, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Kuan-Chih Chow, Kamal Chowdhury, Charleen T Chu, 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Faustino Mollinedo, Marco Mongillo, Martha M Monick, Serena Montagnaro, Craig Montell, Darren J Moore, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora-Rodriguez, Paula I Moreira, Etienne Morel, Maria Beatrice Morelli, Sandra Moreno, Michael J Morgan, Arnaud Moris, Yuji Moriyasu, Janna L Morrison, Lynda A Morrison, Eugenia Morselli, Jorge Moscat, Pope L Moseley, Serge Mostowy, Elisa Motori, Denis Mottet, Jeremy C Mottram, Charbel E-H Moussa, Vassiliki E Mpakou, Hasan Mukhtar, Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Sylviane Muller, Raquel Muñoz-Moreno, Cristina Muñoz-Pinedo, Christian Münz, Maureen E Murphy, James T Murray, Aditya Murthy, Indira U Mysorekar, Ivan R Nabi, Massimo Nabissi, Gustavo A Nader, Yukitoshi Nagahara, Yoshitaka Nagai, Kazuhiro Nagata, Anika Nagelkerke, Péter Nagy, Samisubbu R Naidu, Sreejayan Nair, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Gennaro Napolitano, Naweed I Naqvi, Roberta Nardacci, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Anna Chiara Nascimbeni, Ramesh Natarajan, Luiz C Navegantes, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Volodymyr Y Nazarko, Thomas Neill, Luca M Neri, Mihai G Netea, Romana T Netea-Maier, Bruno M Neves, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Hang Tt Nguyen, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Anne-Sophie Nicot, Hilde Nilsen, Per Nilsson, Mikio Nishimura, Ichizo Nishino, Mireia Niso-Santano, Hua Niu, Ralph A Nixon, Vincent Co Njar, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Elsie Magdalena Nolte, Erik Norberg, Koenraad K Norga, Sakineh Kazemi Noureini, Shoji Notomi, Lucia Notterpek, Karin Nowikovsky, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Valerie B O'Donnell, Tracey O'Donovan, Peter J O'Dwyer, Ina Oehme, Clara L Oeste, Michinaga Ogawa, Besim Ogretmen, Yuji Ogura, Young J Oh, Masaki Ohmuraya, Takayuki Ohshima, Rani Ojha, Koji Okamoto, Toshiro Okazaki, F Javier Oliver, Karin Ollinger, Stefan Olsson, Daniel P Orban, Paulina Ordonez, Idil Orhon, Laszlo Orosz, Eyleen J O'Rourke, Helena Orozco, Angel L Ortega, Elena Ortona, Laura D Osellame, Junko Oshima, Shigeru Oshima, Heinz D Osiewacz, Takanobu Otomo, Kinya Otsu, Jing-Hsiung James Ou, Tiago F Outeiro, Dong-Yun Ouyang, Hongjiao Ouyang, Michael Overholtzer, Michelle A Ozbun, P Hande Ozdinler, Bulent Ozpolat, Consiglia Pacelli, Paolo Paganetti, Guylène Page, Gilles Pages, Ugo Pagnini, Beata Pajak, Stephen C Pak, Karolina Pakos-Zebrucka, Nazzy Pakpour, Zdena Palková, Francesca Palladino, Kathrin Pallauf, Nicolas Pallet, Marta Palmieri, Søren R Paludan, Camilla Palumbo, Silvia Palumbo, Olatz Pampliega, Hongming Pan, Wei Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Aseem Pandey, Areti Pantazopoulou, Zuzana Papackova, Daniela L Papademetrio, Issidora Papassideri, Alessio Papini, Nirmala Parajuli, Julian Pardo, Vrajesh V Parekh, Giancarlo Parenti, Jong-In Park, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Roy Parker, Rosanna Parlato, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Jean-Max Pasquet, Benoit Pasquier, Kishore Bs Pasumarthi, Daniel Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, Scott Pattison, Arnim Pause, Hermann Pavenstädt, Flaminia Pavone, Zully Pedrozo, Fernando J Peña, Miguel A Peñalva, Mario Pende, Jianxin Peng, Fabio Penna, Josef M Penninger, Anna Pensalfini, Salvatore Pepe, Gustavo Js Pereira, Paulo C Pereira, Verónica Pérez-de la Cruz, María Esther Pérez-Pérez, Diego Pérez-Rodríguez, Dolores Pérez-Sala, Celine Perier, Andras Perl, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, Shazib Pervaiz, Maija Pesonen, Jeffrey E Pessin, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Irina Petrache, Basil J Petrof, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Marina Pierdominici, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Federico Pietrocola, Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños, Mario Pinar, Benjamin Pineda, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Marcello Pinti, Paolo Pinton, Bilal Piperdi, James M Piret, Leonidas C Platanias, Harald W Platta, Edward D Plowey, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Peter Polčic, Angelo Poletti, Audrey H Poon, Hana Popelka, Blagovesta Popova, Izabela Poprawa, Shibu M Poulose, Joanna Poulton, Scott K Powers, Ted Powers, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Krisna Prak, Reinhild Prange, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Sharon Prince, Richard L Proia, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Holger Prokisch, Vasilis J Promponas, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Subbiah Pugazhenthi, Luigi Puglielli, Aurora Pujol, Julien Puyal, Dohun Pyeon, Xin Qi, Wen-Bin Qian, Zheng-Hong Qin, Yu Qiu, Ziwei Qu, Joe Quadrilatero, Frederick Quinn, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Flavia Radogna, Michael J Ragusa, Mohamed Rahmani, Komal Raina, Sasanka Ramanadham, Rajagopal Ramesh, Abdelhaq Rami, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Felix Randow, Hai Rao, V Ashutosh Rao, Blake B Rasmussen, Tobias M Rasse, Edward A Ratovitski, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Swapan K Ray, Babak Razani, Bruce H Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Markus Rehm, Andreas S Reichert, Theo Rein, David J Reiner, Eric Reits, Jun Ren, Xingcong Ren, Maurizio Renna, Jane Eb Reusch, Jose L Revuelta, Leticia Reyes, Alireza R Rezaie, Robert I Richards, Des R Richardson, Clémence Richetta, Michael A Riehle, Bertrand H Rihn, Yasuko Rikihisa, Brigit E Riley, Gerald Rimbach, Maria Rita Rippo, Konstantinos Ritis, Federica Rizzi, Elizete Rizzo, Peter J Roach, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Gabriela Roca, Maria Carmela Roccheri, Sonia Rocha, Cecilia Mp Rodrigues, Clara I Rodríguez, Santiago Rodriguez de Cordoba, Natalia Rodriguez-Muela, Jeroen Roelofs, Vladimir V Rogov, Troy T Rohn, Bärbel Rohrer, Davide Romanelli, Luigina Romani, Patricia Silvia Romano, M Isabel G Roncero, Jose Luis Rosa, Alicia Rosello, Kirill V Rosen, Philip Rosenstiel, Magdalena Rost-Roszkowska, Kevin A Roth, Gael Roué, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M Rouschop, Daniel T Ruan, Diego Ruano, David C Rubinsztein, Edmund B Rucker 3rd, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Ruediger Rudolf, Markus A Ruegg, Carmen Ruiz-Roldan, Avnika Ashok Ruparelia, Paola Rusmini, David W Russ, Gian Luigi Russo, Giuseppe Russo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Victoria Ryabovol, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Michael Sacher, Carsten Sachse, Michael N Sack, Junichi Sadoshima, Paul Saftig, Ronit Sagi-Eisenberg, Sumit Sahni, Pothana Saikumar, Tsunenori Saito, Tatsuya Saitoh, Koichi Sakakura, Machiko Sakoh-Nakatogawa, Yasuhito Sakuraba, María Salazar-Roa, Paolo Salomoni, Ashok K Saluja, Paul M Salvaterra, Rosa Salvioli, Afshin Samali, Anthony Mj Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sanchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Miguel A Sanjuan, Stefano Santaguida, Laura Santambrogio, Giorgio Santoni, Claudia Nunes Dos Santos, Shweta Saran, Marco Sardiello, Graeme Sargent, Pallabi Sarkar, Sovan Sarkar, Maria Rosa Sarrias, Minnie M Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Motoko Sasaki, Miklos Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Joseph Satriano, Niramol Savaraj, Svetlana Saveljeva, Liliana Schaefer, Ulrich E Schaible, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schatzl, Randy Schekman, Wiep Scheper, Alfonso Schiavi, Hyman M Schipper, Hana Schmeisser, Jens Schmidt, Ingo Schmitz, Bianca E Schneider, E Marion Schneider, Jaime L Schneider, Eric A Schon, Miriam J Schönenberger, Axel H Schönthal, Daniel F Schorderet, Bernd Schröder, Sebastian Schuck, Ryan J Schulze, Melanie Schwarten, Thomas L Schwarz, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Kathleen Scotto, A Ivana Scovassi, Robert A Screaton, Mark Screen, Hugo Seca, Simon Sedej, Laura Segatori, Nava Segev, Per O Seglen, Jose M Seguí-Simarro, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Ekihiro Seki, Christian Sell, Iban Seiliez, Clay F Semenkovich, Gregg L Semenza, Utpal Sen, Andreas L Serra, Ana Serrano-Puebla, Hiromi Sesaki, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Ayesha N Shajahan-Haq, Irving M Shapiro, Shweta Sharma, Hua She, C-K James Shen, Chiung-Chyi Shen, Han-Ming Shen, Sanbing Shen, Weili Shen, Rui Sheng, Xianyong Sheng, Zu-Hang Sheng, Trevor G Shepherd, Junyan Shi, Qiang Shi, Qinghua Shi, Yuguang Shi, Shusaku Shibutani, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Dong Wook Shin, Mari L Shinohara, Michiko Shintani, Takahiro Shintani, Tetsuo Shioi, Ken Shirabe, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov, Orian Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Chih-Wen Shu, Deepak Shukla, Andriy A Sibirny, Valentina Sica, Christina J Sigurdson, Einar M Sigurdsson, Puran Singh Sijwali, Beata Sikorska, Wilian A Silveira, Sandrine Silvente-Poirot, Gary A Silverman, Jan Simak, Thomas Simmet, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Matias Simons, Anne Simonsen, Rajat Singh, Shivendra V Singh, Shrawan K Singh, Debasish Sinha, Sangita Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Kapil Sirohi, Balindiwe Jn Sishi, Annie Sittler, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Anna Skwarska, Ruth Slack, Iva Slaninová, Nikolai Slavov, Soraya S Smaili, Keiran Sm Smalley, Duncan R Smith, Stefaan J Soenen, Scott A Soleimanpour, Anita Solhaug, Kumaravel Somasundaram, Jin H Son, Avinash Sonawane, Chunjuan Song, Fuyong Song, Hyun Kyu Song, Ju-Xian Song, Wei Song, Kai Y Soo, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Virawudh Soontornniyomkij, Maurizio Sorice, Federica Sotgia, David R Soto-Pantoja, Areechun Sotthibundhu, Maria João Sousa, Herman P Spaink, Paul N Span, Anne Spang, Janet D Sparks, Peter G Speck, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Daret St Clair, Alessandra Stacchiotti, Bart Staels, Michael T Stang, Daniel T Starczynowski, Petro Starokadomskyy, Clemens Steegborn, John W Steele, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan Steffan, Christine M Stellrecht, Harald Stenmark, Tomasz M Stepkowski, Stęphan T Stern, Craig Stevens, Brent R Stockwell, Veronika Stoka, Zuzana Storchova, Björn Stork, Vassilis Stratoulias, Dimitrios J Stravopodis, Pavel Strnad, Anne Marie Strohecker, Anna-Lena Ström, Per Stromhaug, Jiri Stulik, Yu-Xiong Su, Zhaoliang Su, Carlos S Subauste, Srinivasa Subramaniam, Carolyn M Sue, Sang Won Suh, Xinbing Sui, Supawadee Sukseree, David Sulzer, Fang-Lin Sun, Jiaren Sun, Jun Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Yang Sun, Yi Sun, Yingjie Sun, Vinod Sundaramoorthy, Joseph Sung, Hidekazu Suzuki, Kuninori Suzuki, Naoki Suzuki, Tadashi Suzuki, Yuichiro J Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Karl Swärd, Ghanshyam Swarup, Sean T Sweeney, Paul W Sylvester, Zsuzsanna Szatmari, Eva Szegezdi, Peter W Szlosarek, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Emmanuel Taillebourg, Stephen Wg Tait, Krisztina Takacs-Vellai, Yoshinori Takahashi, Szabolcs Takáts, Genzou Takemura, Nagio Takigawa, Nicholas J Talbot, Elena Tamagno, Jerome Tamburini, Cai-Ping Tan, Lan Tan, Mei Lan Tan, Ming Tan, Yee-Joo Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Masaki Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Guomei Tang, Isei Tanida, Kunikazu Tanji, Bakhos A Tannous, Jose A Tapia, Inmaculada Tasset-Cuevas, Marc Tatar, Iman Tavassoly, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Allen Taylor, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Mark J Taylor, Elena V Tchetina, Andrew R Tee, Fatima Teixeira-Clerc, Sucheta Telang, Tewin Tencomnao, Ba-Bie Teng, Ru-Jeng Teng, Faraj Terro, Gianluca Tettamanti, Arianne L Theiss, Anne E Theron, Kelly Jean Thomas, Marcos P Thomé, Paul G Thomes, Andrew Thorburn, Jeremy Thorner, Thomas Thum, Michael Thumm, Teresa Lm Thurston, Ling Tian, Andreas Till, Jenny Pan-Yun Ting, Vladimir I Titorenko, Lilach Toker, Stefano Toldo, Sharon A Tooze, Ivan Topisirovic, Maria Lyngaas Torgersen, Liliana Torosantucci, Alicia Torriglia, Maria Rosaria Torrisi, Cathy Tournier, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Gemma Triola, Durga Nand Tripathi, Daniela Trisciuoglio, Rodrigo Troncoso, Ioannis P Trougakos, Anita C Truttmann, Kuen-Jer Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Yi-Hsin Tseng, Takayuki Tsukuba, Allan Tsung, Andrey S Tsvetkov, Shuiping Tu, Hsing-Yu Tuan, Marco Tucci, David A Tumbarello, Boris Turk, Vito Turk, Robin Fb Turner, Anders A Tveita, Suresh C Tyagi, Makoto Ubukata, Yasuo Uchiyama, Andrej Udelnow, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Benjamin R Underwood, Christian Ungermann, Rodrigo P Ureshino, Ryo Ushioda, Vladimir N Uversky, Néstor L Uzcátegui, Thomas Vaccari, Maria I Vaccaro, Libuše Váchová, Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Rut Valdor, Enza Maria Valente, Francois Vallette, Angela M Valverde, Greet Van den Berghe, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Gijs R van den Brink, F Gisou van der Goot, Ida J van der Klei, Luc Jw van der Laan, Wouter G van Doorn, Marjolein van Egmond, Kenneth L van Golen, Luc Van Kaer, Menno van Lookeren Campagne, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Isabel Varela-Nieto, M Helena Vasconcelos, Radovan Vasko, Demetrios G Vavvas, Ignacio Vega-Naredo, Guillermo Velasco, Athanassios D Velentzas, Panagiotis D Velentzas, Tibor Vellai, Edo Vellenga, Mikkel Holm Vendelbo, Kartik Venkatachalam, Natascia Ventura, Salvador Ventura, Patrícia St Veras, Mireille Verdier, Beata G Vertessy, Andrea Viale, Michel Vidal, Helena L A Vieira, Richard D Vierstra, Nadarajah Vigneswaran, Neeraj Vij, Miquel Vila, Margarita Villar, Victor H Villar, Joan Villarroya, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Giovanni Vitale, Dan T Vogl, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Karin von Schwarzenberg, Daniel E Voth, Valérie Vouret-Craviari, Kristina Vuori, Jatin M Vyas, Christian Waeber, Cheryl Lyn Walker, Mark J Walker, Jochen Walter, Lei Wan, Xiangbo Wan, Bo Wang, Caihong Wang, Chao-Yung Wang, Chengshu Wang, Chenran Wang, Chuangui Wang, Dong Wang, Fen Wang, Fuxin Wang, Guanghui Wang, Hai-Jie Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Hongmin Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jing Wang, Junjun Wang, Mei Wang, Mei-Qing Wang, Pei-Yu Wang, Peng Wang, Richard C Wang, Shuo Wang, Ting-Fang Wang, Xian Wang, Xiao-Jia Wang, Xiao-Wei Wang, Xin Wang, Xuejun Wang, Yan Wang, Yanming Wang, Ying Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Yu Wang, Yu Tian Wang, Yuqing Wang, Zhi-Nong Wang, Pablo Wappner, Carl Ward, Diane McVey Ward, Gary Warnes, Hirotaka Watada, Yoshihisa Watanabe, Kei Watase, Timothy E Weaver, Colin D Weekes, Jiwu Wei, Thomas Weide, Conrad C Weihl, Günther Weindl, Simone Nardin Weis, Longping Wen, Xin Wen, Yunfei Wen, Benedikt Westermann, Cornelia M Weyand, Anthony R White, Eileen White, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Joëlle Wiels, Franziska Wild, Manon E Wildenberg, Tom Wileman, Deepti Srinivas Wilkinson, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Chris Williams, Katherine Williams, Peter R Williamson, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Steven S Witkin, Stephanie E Wohlgemuth, Thomas Wollert, Ernst J Wolvetang, Esther Wong, G William Wong, Richard W Wong, Vincent Kam Wai Wong, Elizabeth A Woodcock, Karen L Wright, Chunlai Wu, Defeng Wu, Gen Sheng Wu, Jian Wu, Junfang Wu, Mian Wu, Min Wu, Shengzhou Wu, William Kk Wu, Yaohua Wu, Zhenlong Wu, Cristina Pr Xavier, Ramnik J Xavier, Gui-Xian Xia, Tian Xia, Weiliang Xia, Yong Xia, Hengyi Xiao, Jian Xiao, Shi Xiao, Wuhan Xiao, Chuan-Ming Xie, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Maria Xilouri, Yuyan Xiong, Chuanshan Xu, Congfeng Xu, Feng Xu, Haoxing Xu, Hongwei Xu, Jian Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Jinxian Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Yangqing Xu, Ye Xu, Zhi-Xiang Xu, Ziheng Xu, Yu Xue, Takahiro Yamada, Ai Yamamoto, Koji Yamanaka, Shunhei Yamashina, Shigeko Yamashiro, Bing Yan, Bo Yan, Xianghua Yan, Zhen Yan, Yasuo Yanagi, Dun-Sheng Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Liu Yang, Minghua Yang, Pei-Ming Yang, Peixin Yang, Qian Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Xuesong Yang, Yi Yang, Ying Yang, Zhifen Yang, Zhihong Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Pamela J Yao, Xiaofeng Yao, Zhenyu Yao, Zhiyuan Yao, Linda S Yasui, Mingxiang Ye, Barry Yedvobnick, Behzad Yeganeh, Elizabeth S Yeh, Patricia L Yeyati, Fan Yi, Long Yi, Xiao-Ming Yin, Calvin K Yip, Yeong-Min Yoo, Young Hyun Yoo, Seung-Yong Yoon, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Ken H Young, Huixin Yu, Jane J Yu, Jin-Tai Yu, Jun Yu, Li Yu, W Haung Yu, Xiao-Fang Yu, Zhengping Yu, Junying Yuan, Zhi-Min Yuan, Beatrice Yjt Yue, Jianbo Yue, Zhenyu Yue, David N Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Tania Zaglia, Zahra Zakeri, Vincent Zecchini, Jinsheng Zeng, Min Zeng, Qi Zeng, Antonis S Zervos, Donna D Zhang, Fan Zhang, Guo Zhang, Guo-Chang Zhang, Hao Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hong Zhang, Hongbing Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jian Zhang, Jiangwei Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Li Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xiangnan Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yang Zhang, Yanjin Zhang, Yingmei Zhang, Yunjiao Zhang, Mei Zhao, Wei-Li Zhao, Xiaonan Zhao, Yan G Zhao, Ying Zhao, Yongchao Zhao, Yu-Xia Zhao, Zhendong Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Dexian Zheng, Xi-Long Zheng, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Guang-Zhou Zhou, Guofei Zhou, Huiping Zhou, Shu-Feng Zhou, Xu-Jie Zhou, Hongxin Zhu, Hua Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Wenhua Zhu, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Yuhua Zhu, Shi-Mei Zhuang, Xiaohong Zhuang, Elio Ziparo, Christos E Zois, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Susu M Zughaier

    Autophagy   12 ( 1 )   1 - 222   2016年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356

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  • Mitophagy in yeast: Molecular mechanisms and physiological role. 査読

    Kanki T, Furukawa K, Yamashita S

    Biochimica et biophysica acta   1853 ( 10 Pt B )   2756 - 2765   2015年10月

  • Mitophagy is primarily due to alternative autophagy and requires the MAPK1 and MAPK14 signaling pathways 査読

    Yuko Hirota, Shun-ichi Yamashita, Yusuke Kurihara, Xiulian Jin, Masamune Aihara, Tetsu Saigusa, Dongchon Kang, Tomotake Kanki

    AUTOPHAGY   11 ( 2 )   332 - 343   2015年2月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC  

    In cultured cells, not many mitochondria are degraded by mitophagy induced by physiological cellular stress. We observed mitophagy in HeLa cells using a method that relies on the pH-sensitive fluorescent protein Keima. With this approach, we found that mitophagy was barely induced by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone treatment, which is widely used as an inducer of PARK2/Parkin-related mitophagy, whereas a small but modest amount of mitochondria were degraded by mitophagy under conditions of starvation or hypoxia. Mitophagy induced by starvation or hypoxia was marginally suppressed by knockdown of ATG7 and ATG12, or MAP1LC3B, which are essential for conventional macroautophagy. In addition, mitophagy was efficiently induced in Atg5 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. However, knockdown of RAB9A and RAB9B, which are essential for alternative autophagy, but not conventional macroautophagy, severely suppressed mitophagy. Finally, we found that the MAPKs MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK14/p38 were required for mitophagy. Based on these findings, we conclude that mitophagy in mammalian cells predominantly occurs through an alternative autophagy pathway, requiring the MAPK1 and MAPK14 signaling pathways.

    DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1023047

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  • Atg32 Confers Selective Mitochondrial Sequestration as a Cargo for Autophagy 査読

    Yusuke Kurihara, Tomotake Kanki

    Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging   4   163 - 173   2014年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:論文集(書籍)内論文   出版者・発行元:Elsevier Inc.  

    Mitochondria are organelles that supply a large amount of energy required for cellular activities. Accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria within cells inhibits cellular functions and causes several diseases. Thus, the cell has devised specific mechanisms to ensure proper quality and quantity control of this organelle. Mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) is thought to be one of the primary mechanisms for mitochondrial quality control that selectively eliminate dysfunctional or excess mitochondria via an autophagic process. ATG32 is a mitophagy-specific gene identified by a yeast genome-wide screen for mitophagy. Atg32, a protein encoded by ATG32, is a transmembrane protein localized in the mitochondrial outer membrane. During mitophagy induction, Atg32 functions as a mitochondrial receptor protein that interacts with cytosolic adaptor protein Atg11, which recruits mitochondria to the autophagic machinery for degradation. In this chapter, we describe the molecular mechanism and physiology of mitophagy in yeast, with an emphasis on the role of Atg32.

    DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-405528-5.00010-9

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  • Tor and the Sin3-Rpd3 complex regulate expression of the mitophagy receptor protein Atg32 in yeast 査読

    Masamune Aihara, Xiulian Jin, Yusuke Kurihara, Yutaka Yoshida, Yuichi Matsushima, Masahide Oku, Yuko Hirota, Tetsu Saigusa, Yoshimasa Aoki, Takeshi Uchiumi, Tadashi Yamamoto, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Dongchon Kang, Tomotake Kanki

    JOURNAL OF CELL SCIENCE   127 ( 14 )   3184 - 3196   2014年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:COMPANY OF BIOLOGISTS LTD  

    When mitophagy is induced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial outer membrane protein ScAtg32 interacts with the cytosolic adaptor protein ScAtg11. ScAtg11 then delivers the mitochondria to the pre-autophagosomal structure for autophagic degradation. Despite the importance of ScAtg32 for mitophagy, the expression and functional regulation of ScAtg32 are poorly understood. In this study, we identified and characterized the ScAtg32 homolog in Pichia pastoris (PpAtg32). Interestingly, we found that PpAtg32 was barely expressed before induction of mitophagy and was rapidly expressed after induction of mitophagy by starvation. Additionally, PpAtg32 was phosphorylated when mitophagy was induced. We found that PpAtg32 expression was suppressed by Tor and the downstream PpSin3-PpRpd3 complex. Inhibition of Tor by rapamycin induced PpAtg32 expression, but could neither phosphorylate PpAtg32 nor induce mitophagy. Based on these findings, we conclude that the Tor and PpSin3-PpRpd3 pathway regulates PpAtg32 expression, but not PpAtg32 phosphorylation.

    DOI: 10.1242/jcs.153254

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  • Assays for autophagy II: Mitochondrial autophagy. 査読

    Kanki T, Okamoto K

    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)   1163   165 - 173   2014年

  • Casein kinase 2 is essential for mitophagy 査読

    Tomotake Kanki, Yusuke Kurihara, Xiulian Jin, Tadahiro Goda, Yusuke Ono, Masamune Aihara, Yuko Hirota, Tetsu Saigusa, Yoshimasa Aoki, Takeshi Uchiumi, Dongchon Kang

    EMBO REPORTS   14 ( 9 )   788 - 794   2013年9月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP  

    Mitophagy is a process that selectively degrades mitochondria. When mitophagy is induced in yeast, the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Atg32 is phosphorylated, interacts with the adaptor protein Atg11 and is recruited into the vacuole with mitochondria. We screened kinase-deleted yeast strains and found that CK2 is essential for Atg32 phosphorylation, Atg32-Atg11 interaction and mitophagy. Inhibition of CK2 specifically blocks mitophagy, but not macroautophagy, pexophagy or the Cvt pathway. In vitro, CK2 phosphorylates Atg32 at serine 114 and serine 119. We conclude that CK2 regulates mitophagy by directly phosphorylating Atg32.

    DOI: 10.1038/embor.2013.114

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  • Mutation and functional analysis of ABCC2/multidrug resistance protein 2 in a Japanese patient with Dubin-Johnson syndrome 査読

    Takeshi Uchiumi, Hiroyuki Tanamachi, Kajiyo Kuchiwaki, Mitsuharu Kajita, Shinya Matsumoto, Mikako Yagi, Tomotake Kanki, Dongchon Kang

    HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH   43 ( 5 )   569 - 575   2013年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL  

    DubinJohnson syndrome (DJS) is a recessive inherited disorder characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. It is caused by dysfunction of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 2 (ABCC2/MRP2) on the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. We performed mutational analysis of the ABCC2/MRP2 gene in a Japanese female with DJS. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of the two identified DJS-associated mutations on MRP2 function. We found a compound heterozygous mutation in the patient: W709R (c.2124T>C), a missense mutation in exon 17, and R1310X (c.3928C>T), a nonsense mutation in exon 28. DJS-associated mutations have been shown to impair the protein maturation and transport activity of ABCC2/MRP2. We established HEK293 cell lines stably expressing one of the two identified DJS-associated mutations. Expressed W709R MRP2 was mainly core-glycosylated, predominantly retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, and exhibited no transport activity, suggesting that this mutation causes deficient maturation and impaired protein sorting. No MRP2 protein was expressed from HEK293 cells transfected with an R1310X-containing construct. This compound heterozygous mutation of the MRP2 gene causes dysfunction of the MRP2 protein and the hyperbilirubinemia seen in DJS.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1872-034X.2012.01103.x

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  • Effects of overexpression of mitochondrial transcription factor A on lifespan and oxidative stress response in Drosophila melanogaster 査読

    Takako Matsuda, Tomotake Kanki, Teiichi Tanimura, Dongchon Kang, Etsuko T. Matsuura

    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   430 ( 2 )   717 - 721   2013年1月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE  

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) plays a role in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by packaging mtDNA, forming the mitochondrial nucleoid. There have been many reports about a function of TFAM at the cellular level, but only a few studies have been done in individual organisms. Here we examined the effects of TFAM on the Drosophila lifespan and oxidative stress response, by overexpressing TFAM using the GAL4/UAS system. Under standard conditions, the lifespan of TFAM-overexpressing flies was shorter than that of the control flies. However, the lifespan of TFAM-overexpressing flies was longer when they were treated with 1% H2O2. These results suggest that even though excess TFAM has a negative influence on lifespan, it has a defensive function under strong oxidative stress. In the TFAM-overexpressing flies, no significant changes in mtDNA copy number or mtDNA transcription were observed. However, the results of a total antioxidant activity assay suggest the possibility that TFAM is involved in the elimination of oxidative stress. The present results clearly show the effects of TFAM overexpression on the lifespan of Drosophila under both standard conditions and oxidative stress conditions, and our findings contribute to the understanding of the physiological mechanisms involving TFAM in mitochondria. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.11.084

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  • Protein instability and functional defects caused by mutations of dihydro-orotate dehydrogenase in Miller syndrome patients 査読

    JingXian Fang, Takeshi Uchiumi, Mikako Yagi, Shinya Matsumoto, Rie Amamoto, Toshiro Saito, Shinya Takazaki, Tomotake Kanki, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Kazuaki Nonaka, Dongchon Kang

    BIOSCIENCE REPORTS   32 ( 6 )   631 - 639   2012年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:PORTLAND PRESS LTD  

    Miller syndrome is a recessive inherited disorder characterized by postaxial acrofacial dysostosis. It is caused by dysfunction of the DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) gene, which encodes a key enzyme in the pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis pathway and is localized at mitochondria intermembrane space. We investigated the consequence of three missense mutations, G202A, R346W and R135C of DHODH, which were previously identified in patients with Miller syndrome. First, we established He La cell lines stably expressing DHODH with Miller syndrome-causative mutations: G202A, R346W and R135C. These three mutant proteins retained the proper mitochondrial localization based on immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial subfractionation studies. The G202A, R346W DHODH proteins showed reduced protein stability. On the other hand, the third one R135C, in which the mutation lies at the ubiquinone-binding site, was stable but possessed no enzymatic activity. In conclusion, the G202A and R346W mutation causes deficient protein stability, and the R135C mutation does not affect stability but impairs the substrate-induced enzymatic activity, suggesting that impairment of DHODH activity is linked to the Miller syndrome phenotype.

    DOI: 10.1042/BSR20120046

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  • p32/gC1qR is indispensable for fetal development and mitochondrial translation: importance of its RNA-binding ability 査読

    Mikako Yagi, Takeshi Uchiumi, Shinya Takazaki, Bungo Okuno, Masatoshi Nomura, Shin-ichi Yoshida, Tomotake Kanki, Dongchon Kang

    NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH   40 ( 19 )   9717 - 9737   2012年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:OXFORD UNIV PRESS  

    p32 is an evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed multifunctional protein. Although p32 exists at diverse intra and extracellular sites, it is predominantly localized to the mitochondrial matrix near the nucleoid associated with mitochondrial transcription factor A. Nonetheless, its function in the matrix is poorly understood. Here, we determined p32 function via generation of p32-knockout mice. p32-deficient mice exhibited mid-gestation lethality associated with a severe developmental defect of the embryo. Primary embryonic fibroblasts isolated from p32-knockout embryos showed severe dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, because of severely impaired mitochondrial protein synthesis. Recombinant p32 binds RNA, not DNA, and endogenous p32 interacts with all mitochondrial messenger RNA species in vivo. The RNA-binding ability of p32 is well correlated with the mitochondrial translation. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed the close association of p32 with the mitoribosome. We propose that p32 is required for functional mitoribosome formation to synthesize proteins within mitochondria.

    DOI: 10.1093/nar/gks774

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  • Localization of mRNAs encoding human mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation proteins 査読

    Shinya Matsumoto, Takeshi Uchiumi, Toshiro Saito, Mikako Yagi, Shinya Takazaki, Tomotake Kanki, Dongchon Kang

    MITOCHONDRION   12 ( 3 )   391 - 398   2012年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER SCI LTD  

    The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins are encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. The nuclear-encoded OXPHOS mRNAs have specific subcellular localizations, but little is known about which localize near mitochondria. Here, we compared mRNAs in mitochondria-bound polysome fractions with those in cytosolic, free polysome fractions. mRNAs encoding hydrophobic OXPHOS proteins, which insert into the inner membrane, were localized near mitochondria. Conversely, OXPHOS gene which mRNAs were predominantly localized in cytosol had less than one transmembrane domain. The RNA-binding protein Y-box binding protein-1 is localized at the mitochondrial outer membrane and bound to the OXPHOS mRNAs. Our findings offer new insight into mitochondrial co-translational import in human cells. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.mito.2012.02.004

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  • Ribonucleoprotein Y-box-binding protein-1 regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) protein expression after serum stimulation through binding to OXPHOS mRNA 査読

    Shinya Matsumoto, Takeshi Uchiumi, Hiroyuki Tanamachi, Toshiro Saito, Mikako Yagi, Shinya Takazaki, Tomotake Kanki, Dongchon Kang

    BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL   443 ( 2 )   573 - 584   2012年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:PORTLAND PRESS LTD  

    Mitochondria play key roles in essential cellular functions, such as energy production, metabolic pathways and aging. Growth factor-mediated expression of the mitochondria] OXPHOS (oxidative phosphorylation) complex proteins has been proposed to play a fundamental role in metabolic homeostasis. Although protein translation is affected by general RNA-binding proteins, very little is known about the mechanism involved in mitochondrial OXPHOS protein translation. In the present study, serum stimulation induced nuclear-encoded OXPHOS protein expression, such as NDUFA9 [NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 9, 39 kDa], NDUFB8 [NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 8, 19 kDa], SDHB [succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B, iron sulfur (Ip)] and UQCRFS1 (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, Rieske iron sulfur polypeptide 1), and mitochondrial ATP production, in a translation-dependent manner. We also observed that the major ribonucleoprotein YB-1 (Y-box-binding protein-1) preferentially bound to these OXPHOS mRNAs and regulated the recruitment of mRNAs from inactive mRNPs (messenger ribonucleoprotein particles) to active polysomes. YB-1 depletion led to up-regulation of mitochondrial function through induction of OXPHOS protein translation from inactive mRNP release. In contrast, YB-1 overexpression suppressed the translation of these OXPHOS mRNAs through reduced polysome formation, suggesting that YB-1 regulated the translation of mitochondrial OXPHOS mRNAs through mRNA binding. Taken together, our findings suggest that YB-1 is a critical factor for translation that may control OXPHOS activity.

    DOI: 10.1042/BJ20111728

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  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy. 査読 国際誌

    Daniel J Klionsky, Fabio C Abdalla, Hagai Abeliovich, Robert T Abraham, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Khosrow Adeli, Lotta Agholme, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Hyung Jun Ahn, Ouardia Ait-Mohamed, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Shizuo Akira, Hesham M Al-Younes, Munir A Al-Zeer, Matthew L Albert, Roger L Albin, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Maria Francesca Aleo, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Becerril, Atsuo Amano, Ravi Amaravadi, Shoba Amarnath, Amal O Amer, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Vellareddy Anantharam, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Giuseppe Arancia, John P Aris, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Nana Y O Asare, Hisashi Ashida, Valerie Askanas, David S Askew, Patrick Auberger, Misuzu Baba, Steven K Backues, Eric H Baehrecke, Ben A Bahr, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Robert Baiocchi, Giulia Baldini, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Bruce A Bamber, Edward T W Bampton, Gábor Bánhegyi, Clinton R Bartholomew, Diane C Bassham, Robert C Bast Jr, Henri Batoko, Boon-Huat Bay, Isabelle Beau, Daniel M Béchet, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Soumeya Bekri, Bryan Bellaire, Linda J Bendall, Luca Benetti, Laura Berliocchi, Henri Bernardi, Francesca Bernassola, Sébastien Besteiro, Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova, Xiaoning Bi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Janice S Blum, Lawrence H Boise, Paolo Bonaldo, David L Boone, Beat C Bornhauser, Karina R Bortoluci, Ioannis Bossis, Frédéric Bost, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan R Brady, Claudio Brancolini, Andreas Brech, Jay E Brenman, Ana Brennand, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Molly L Bristol, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Ulf T Brunk, Dennis E Bulman, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Lena F Burbulla, Wilfried Bursch, Jonathan P Butchar, Wanda Buzgariu, Sergio P Bydlowski, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahová, Dongsheng Cai, Jiyang Cai, Qian Cai, Bruno Calabretta, Javier Calvo-Garrido, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Jenny Campos-Salinas, Eleonora Candi, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Simon R Carding, Sandra M Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Cathleen R Carlin, Virginie Carmignac, Leticia A M Carneiro, Serena Carra, Rosario A Caruso, Giorgio Casari, Caty Casas, Roberta Castino, Eduardo Cebollero, Francesco Cecconi, Jean Celli, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Chee-Yin Chai, David C Chan, Edmond Y Chan, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Chi-Ming Che, Ching-Chow Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen, Min Chen, Quan Chen, Steve S-L Chen, WenLi Chen, Xi Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Xiequn Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher H K Cheng, Yan Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sara Cherry, Russ Chess-Williams, Zelda H Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Tomoki Chiba, Lih-Shen Chin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Francis V Chisari, Chi Hin Cho, Dong-Hyung Cho, Augustine M K Choi, DooSeok Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi, Mary E Choi, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Sheau-Huei Chueh, Taehoon Chun, Yong-Joon Chwae, Mee-Len Chye, Roberto Ciarcia, Maria R Ciriolo, Michael J Clague, Robert S B Clark, Peter G H Clarke, Robert Clarke, Patrice Codogno, Hilary A Coller, María I Colombo, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Fabrizio Condorelli, Mark R Cookson, Graham H Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Ramon Corbalan, Pascale Cossart, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Ana Coto-Montes, Eduardo Couve, Fraser P Coxon, James M Cregg, José L Crespo, Marianne J Cronjé, Ana Maria Cuervo, Joseph J Cullen, Mark J Czaja, Marcello D'Amelio, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Lester M Davids, Faith E Davies, Massimo De Felici, John F de Groot, Cornelis A M de Haan, Luisa De Martino, Angelo De Milito, Vincenzo De Tata, Jayanta Debnath, Alexei Degterev, Benjamin Dehay, Lea M D Delbridge, Francesca Demarchi, Yi Zhen Deng, Jörn Dengjel, Paul Dent, Donna Denton, Vojo Deretic, Shyamal D Desai, Rodney J Devenish, Mario Di Gioacchino, Gilbert Di Paolo, Chiara Di Pietro, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Inés Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Ivan Dikic, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Wen-Xing Ding, Clark W Distelhorst, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Zheng Dong, Frank C Dorsey, Victor Dosenko, James J Dowling, Stephen Doxsey, Marlène Dreux, Mark E Drew, Qiuhong Duan, Michel A Duchosal, Karen Duff, Isabelle Dugail, Madeleine Durbeej, Michael Duszenko, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Gustavo Egea, Ludwig Eichinger, N Tony Eissa, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Wafik S El-Deiry, Zvulun Elazar, Mohamed Elgendy, Lisa M Ellerby, Kai Er Eng, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Ricardo Escalante, Audrey Esclatine, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Virginia Espina, Huizhou Fan, Jia Fan, Qi-Wen Fan, Zhen Fan, Shengyun Fang, Yongqi Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Jean-Claude Farré, Mathias Faure, Marcus Fechheimer, Carl G Feng, Jian Feng, Qili Feng, Youji Feng, László Fésüs, Ralph Feuer, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Gian Maria Fimia, Diane C Fingar, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Kim D Finley, Filomena Fiorito, Edward A Fisher, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Maria L Florez-McClure, Salvatore Florio, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Rati Fotedar, Daniel H Fowler, Howard S Fox, Rodrigo Franco, Lisa B Frankel, Marc Fransen, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Jun Fujii, Kozo Fujisaki, Eriko Fujita, Mitsunori Fukuda, Ruth H Furukawa, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Brigitte Galliot, Vincent Galy, Subramaniam Ganesh, Barry Ganetzky, Ian G Ganley, Fen-Biao Gao, George F Gao, Jinming Gao, Lorena Garcia, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Mikel Garcia-Marcos, Marjan Garmyn, Andrei L Gartel, Evelina Gatti, Mathias Gautel, Thomas R Gawriluk, Matthew E Gegg, Jiefei Geng, Marc Germain, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Pradipta Ghosh, Anna M Giammarioli, Alexandra N Giatromanolaki, Spencer B Gibson, Robert W Gilkerson, Michael L Ginger, Henry N Ginsberg, Jakub Golab, Michael S Goligorsky, Pierre Golstein, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Ebru Goncu, Céline Gongora, Claudio D Gonzalez, Ramon Gonzalez, Cristina González-Estévez, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Sharon Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Roberta A Gottlieb, Devrim Gozuacik, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Gary D Grant, Kim N Green, Aleš Gregorc, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Thomas W Grunt, Philippe Gual, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Sylvie M Guichard, Anna S Gukovskaya, Ilya Gukovsky, Jan Gunst, Asa B Gustafsson, Andrew J Halayko, Amber N Hale, Sandra K Halonen, Maho Hamasaki, Feng Han, Ting Han, Michael K Hancock, Malene Hansen, Hisashi Harada, Masaru Harada, Stefan E Hardt, J Wade Harper, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Steven D Harris, Makoto Hashimoto, Jeffrey A Haspel, Shin-ichiro Hayashi, Lori A Hazelhurst, Congcong He, You-Wen He, Marie-Joseé Hébert, Kim A Heidenreich, Miep H Helfrich, Gudmundur V Helgason, Elizabeth P Henske, Brian Herman, Paul K Herman, Claudio Hetz, Sabine Hilfiker, Joseph A Hill, Lynne J Hocking, Paul Hofman, Thomas G Hofmann, Jörg Höhfeld, Tessa L Holyoake, Ming-Huang Hong, David A Hood, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Ewout J Houwerzijl, Maria Høyer-Hansen, Bingren Hu, Chien-An A Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Ju Huang, Shengbing Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Tobias B Huber, Won-Ki Huh, Tai-Ho Hung, Ted R Hupp, Gang Min Hur, James B Hurley, Sabah N A Hussain, Patrick J Hussey, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Shirin Ilkhanizadeh, Ken Inoki, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Nancy Y Ip, Yoshitaka Isaka, Hiroyuki Ishida, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-ichi Isobe, Akiko Iwasaki, Marta Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Panu M Jaakkola, Marja Jäättelä, George R Jackson, William T Jackson, Bassam Janji, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Eui-Bae Jeung, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Ming Jiang, Qing Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Cheol O Joe, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail V W Johnson, Nicola L Jones, Bertrand Joseph, Suresh K Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Gábor Juhász, Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret, Chang Hwa Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Motoni Kadowaki, Katarina Kagedal, Yoshiaki Kamada, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Chanhee Kang, Khong Bee Kang, Kwang Il Kang, Rui Kang, Yoon-A Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy, Vassiliki Karantza, Gur P Kaushal, Susmita Kaushik, Yoshinori Kawazoe, Po-Yuan Ke, John H Kehrl, Ameeta Kelekar, Claus Kerkhoff, David H Kessel, Hany Khalil, Jan A K W Kiel, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hou Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, John K Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Jason S King, Timothy J Kinsella, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Kaio Kitazato, Ludger Klein, Walter T Klimecki, Jochen Klucken, Erwin Knecht, Ben C B Ko, Jan C Koch, Hiroshi Koga, Jae-Young Koh, Young Ho Koh, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Hee Jeong Kong, Wei-Jia Kong, Viktor I Korolchuk, Yaichiro Kotake, Michael I Koukourakis, Juan B Kouri Flores, Attila L Kovács, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Krämer, Carole Kretz-Remy, Anna M Krichevsky, Guido Kroemer, Rejko Krüger, Oleg Krut, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Chia-Yi Kuan, Roza Kucharczyk, Ashok Kumar, Raj Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Tino Kurz, Ho Jeong Kwon, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Trond Lamark, Jacques Landry, Jon D Lane, Pierre Lapaquette, Jocelyn F Laporte, Lajos László, Sergio Lavandero, Josée N Lavoie, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Weidong Le, Laurent Le Cam, Daniel J Ledbetter, Alvin J X Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Gyun Min Lee, Jongdae Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Michael Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Sug Hyung Lee, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Patrick Legembre, Renaud Legouis, Michael Lehmann, Huan-Yao Lei, Qun-Ying Lei, David A Leib, José Leiro, John J Lemasters, Antoinette Lemoine, Maciej S Lesniak, Dina Lev, Victor V Levenson, Beth Levine, Efrat Levy, Faqiang Li, Jun-Lin Li, Lian Li, Sheng Li, Weijie Li, Xue-Jun Li, Yan-bo Li, Yi-Ping Li, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Yung-Feng Liao, Pawel P Liberski, Andrew Lieberman, Hyunjung J Lim, Kah-Leong Lim, Kyu Lim, Chiou-Feng Lin, Fu-Cheng Lin, Jian Lin, Jiandie D Lin, Kui Lin, Wan-Wan Lin, Weei-Chin Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Rafael Linden, Paul Lingor, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Michael P Lisanti, Paloma B Liton, Bo Liu, Chun-Feng Liu, Kaiyu Liu, Leyuan Liu, Qiong A Liu, Wei Liu, Young-Chau Liu, Yule Liu, Richard A Lockshin, Chun-Nam Lok, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin Loos, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Carlos López-Otín, Laura Lossi, Michael T Lotze, Peter Lőw, Binfeng Lu, Bingwei Lu, Bo Lu, Zhen Lu, Frédéric Luciano, Nicholas W Lukacs, Anders H Lund, Melinda A Lynch-Day, Yong Ma, Fernando Macian, Jeff P MacKeigan, Kay F Macleod, Frank Madeo, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Davide Malagoli, May Christine V Malicdan, Walter Malorni, Na Man, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Stéphen Manon, Irena Manov, Kai Mao, Xiang Mao, Zixu Mao, Philippe Marambaud, Daniela Marazziti, Yves L Marcel, Katie Marchbank, Piero Marchetti, Stefan J Marciniak, Mateus Marcondes, Mohsen Mardi, Gabriella Marfe, Guillermo Mariño, Maria Markaki, Mark R Marten, Seamus J Martin, Camille Martinand-Mari, Wim Martinet, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Matilde Masini, Paola Matarrese, Saburo Matsuo, Raffaele Matteoni, Andreas Mayer, Nathalie M Mazure, David J McConkey, Melanie J McConnell, Catherine McDermott, Christine McDonald, Gerald M McInerney, Sharon L McKenna, BethAnn McLaughlin, Pamela J McLean, Christopher R McMaster, G Angus McQuibban, Alfred J Meijer, Miriam H Meisler, Alicia Meléndez, Thomas J Melia, Gerry Melino, Maria A Mena, Javier A Menendez, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Manoj B Menon, Fiona M Menzies, Carol A Mercer, Adalberto Merighi, Diane E Merry, Stefania Meschini, Christian G Meyer, Thomas F Meyer, Chao-Yu Miao, Jun-Ying Miao, Paul A M Michels, Carine Michiels, Dalibor Mijaljica, Ana Milojkovic, Saverio Minucci, Clelia Miracco, Cindy K Miranti, Ioannis Mitroulis, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Baharia Mograbi, Simin Mohseni, Xavier Molero, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Takashi Momoi, Iryna Monastyrska, Martha M Monick, Mervyn J Monteiro, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora, Kevin Moreau, Paula I Moreira, Yuji Moriyasu, Jorge Moscat, Serge Mostowy, Jeremy C Mottram, Tomasz Motyl, Charbel E-H Moussa, Sylke Müller, Sylviane Muller, Karl Münger, Christian Münz, Leon O Murphy, Maureen E Murphy, Antonio Musarò, Indira Mysorekar, Eiichiro Nagata, Kazuhiro Nagata, Aimable Nahimana, Usha Nair, Toshiyuki Nakagawa, Kiichi Nakahira, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Naweed I Naqvi, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Miguel Navarro, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Andriy Nemchenko, Mihai G Netea, Thomas P Neufeld, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Daotai Nie, Ichizo Nishino, Corey Nislow, Ralph A Nixon, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Anna Nogalska, Satoru Noguchi, Lucia Notterpek, Ivana Novak, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Beat Nyfeler, Keisuke Obara, Terry D Oberley, Salvatore Oddo, Michinaga Ogawa, Toya Ohashi, Koji Okamoto, Nancy L Oleinick, F Javier Oliver, Laura J Olsen, Stefan Olsson, Onya Opota, Timothy F Osborne, Gary K Ostrander, Kinya Otsu, Jing-hsiung James Ou, Mireille Ouimet, Michael Overholtzer, Bulent Ozpolat, Paolo Paganetti, Ugo Pagnini, Nicolas Pallet, Glen E Palmer, Camilla Palumbo, Tianhong Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Udai Bhan Pandey, Zuzana Papackova, Issidora Papassideri, Irmgard Paris, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Susann Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, John M Pawelek, Jianxin Peng, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, George Perry, Shazib Pervaiz, Matthias Peter, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Gérard Pierron, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Antonio Piras, Natik Piri, Leonidas C Platanias, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Angelo Poletti, Christian Poüs, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Mette Prætorius-Ibba, Anil Prasad, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Nathalie Produit-Zengaffinen, Ann Progulske-Fox, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Serge Przedborski, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Julien Puyal, Shu-Bing Qian, Liang Qin, Zheng-Hong Qin, Susan E Quaggin, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Simon W Rabkin, Irfan Rahman, Abdelhaq Rami, Georg Ramm, Glenn Randall, Felix Randow, V Ashutosh Rao, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Brinda Ravikumar, Swapan K Ray, Bruce H Reed, John C Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Anne Régnier-Vigouroux, Andreas S Reichert, John J Reiners Jr, Russel J Reiter, Jun Ren, José L Revuelta, Christopher J Rhodes, Konstantinos Ritis, Elizete Rizzo, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Hernan Roca, Maria C Roccheri, Stephane Rocchi, H Peter Rodemann, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Bärbel Rohrer, Igor B Roninson, Kirill Rosen, Magdalena M Rost-Roszkowska, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M A Rouschop, Francesca Rovetta, Brian P Rubin, David C Rubinsztein, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Edmund B Rucker 3rd, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Junichi Sadoshima, Tapas Saha, Tatsuya Saitoh, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Ghasem Hoseini Salekdeh, Paolo Salomoni, Paul M Salvaterra, Guy Salvesen, Rosa Salvioli, Anthony M J Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Uma Sankar, Poonam Sansanwal, Laura Santambrogio, Shweta Saran, Sovan Sarkar, Minnie Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Miklós Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Anthony H V Schapira, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schätzl, Wiep Scheper, Stefano Schiaffino, Claudio Schneider, Marion E Schneider, Regine Schneider-Stock, Patricia V Schoenlein, Daniel F Schorderet, Christoph Schüller, Gary K Schwartz, Luca Scorrano, Linda Sealy, Per O Seglen, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Iban Seiliez, Oleksandr Seleverstov, Christian Sell, Jong Bok Seo, Duska Separovic, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Mala Shanmugam, Irving M Shapiro, Eitan Shaulian, Reuben J Shaw, James H Shelhamer, Han-Ming Shen, Wei-Chiang Shen, Zu-Hang Sheng, Yang Shi, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Takahiro Shintani, Orian S Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Andriy A Sibirny, Stan B Sidhu, Beata Sikorska, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Alison Simmons, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Anne Simonsen, David A Sinclair, Rajat Singh, Debasish Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Vojtech Skop, Vladimir P Skulachev, Ruth S Slack, Soraya S Smaili, Duncan R Smith, Maria S Soengas, Thierry Soldati, Xueqin Song, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Federica Sotgia, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Srinivasa M Srinivasula, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan S Steffan, Ruediger Stendel, Harald Stenmark, Anastasis Stephanou, Stephan T Stern, Cinthya Sternberg, Björn Stork, Peter Strålfors, Carlos S Subauste, Xinbing Sui, David Sulzer, Jiaren Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Jun Sun, Joseph J Y Sung, Kuninori Suzuki, Toshihiko Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Sean T Sweeney, Lai-King Sy, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Ira Tabas, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Krisztina Takács-Vellai, Yoshitaka Takano, Kaoru Takegawa, Genzou Takemura, Fumihiko Takeshita, Nicholas J Talbot, Kevin S W Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Kozo Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Isei Tanida, Bakhos A Tannous, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Lance S Terada, Alexei Terman, Gianluca Tettamanti, Karin Thevissen, Craig B Thompson, Andrew Thorburn, Michael Thumm, FengFeng Tian, Yuan Tian, Glauco Tocchini-Valentini, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Yasuhiko Tomino, Lars Tönges, Sharon A Tooze, Cathy Tournier, John Tower, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Ting-Fen Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Takeshi Tsubata, Allan Tsung, Boris Turk, Lorianne S Turner, Suresh C Tyagi, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Vivek K Unni, Maria I Vaccaro, Enza Maria Valente, Greet Van den Berghe, Ida J van der Klei, Wouter van Doorn, Linda F van Dyk, Marjolein van Egmond, Leo A van Grunsven, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim P Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Eva C Vaquero, Guillermo Velasco, Tibor Vellai, Jose Miguel Vicencio, Richard D Vierstra, Miquel Vila, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Marcela Votruba, Keiji Wada, Richard Wade-Martins, Cheryl L Walker, Craig M Walsh, Jochen Walter, Xiang-Bo Wan, Aimin Wang, Chenguang Wang, Dawei Wang, Fan Wang, Fen Wang, Guanghui Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Wang, Mei Wang, Richard C Wang, Xinglong Wang, Xuejun Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Zhen Wang, Zhigang Charles Wang, Zhinong Wang, Derick G Wansink, Diane M Ward, Hirotaka Watada, Sarah L Waters, Paul Webster, Lixin Wei, Conrad C Weihl, William A Weiss, Scott M Welford, Long-Ping Wen, Caroline A Whitehouse, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Tom Wileman, John W Wiley, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Roger L Williams, Peter R Williamson, Bradly G Wouters, Chenghan Wu, Dao-Cheng Wu, William K K Wu, Andreas Wyttenbach, Ramnik J Xavier, Zhijun Xi, Pu Xia, Gengfu Xiao, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Da-zhi Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Ai Yamamoto, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Shunhei Yamashina, Michiaki Yamashita, Xianghua Yan, Mitsuhiro Yanagida, Dun-Sheng Yang, Elizabeth Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Shi Yu Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Zhifen Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Tso-Pang Yao, Behzad Yeganeh, Wei-Lien Yen, Jia-jing Yin, Xiao-Ming Yin, Ook-Joon Yoo, Gyesoon Yoon, Seung-Yong Yoon, Tomohiro Yorimitsu, Yuko Yoshikawa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Kohki Yoshimoto, Ho Jin You, Richard J Youle, Anas Younes, Li Yu, Long Yu, Seong-Woon Yu, Wai Haung Yu, Zhi-Min Yuan, Zhenyu Yue, Cheol-Heui Yun, Michisuke Yuzaki, Olga Zabirnyk, Elaine Silva-Zacarin, David Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Zahra Zakeri, Herbert J Zeh 3rd, Scott O Zeitlin, Hong Zhang, Hui-Ling Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Mantong Zhao, Yi-Fang Zhao, Ying Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Changlian Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Xiongwei Zhu, Yuangang Zhu, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Jürgen Zschocke, Brian Zuckerbraun

    Autophagy   8 ( 4 )   445 - 544   2012年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

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  • Mitophagy Plays an Essential Role in Reducing Mitochondrial Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Mutation of Mitochondrial DNA by Maintaining Mitochondrial Quantity and Quality in Yeast 査読

    Yusuke Kurihara, Tomotake Kanki, Yoshimasa Aoki, Yuko Hirota, Tetsu Saigusa, Takeshi Uchiumi, Dongchon Kang

    JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY   287 ( 5 )   3265 - 3272   2012年1月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC  

    In mammalian cells, the autophagy-dependent degradation of mitochondria (mitophagy) is thought to maintain mitochondrial quality by eliminating damaged mitochondria. However, the physiological importance of mitophagy has not been clarified in yeast. Here, we investigated the physiological role of mitophagy in yeast using mitophagy-deficient atg32- or atg11-knock-out cells. When wild-type yeast cells in respiratory growth encounter nitrogen starvation, mitophagy is initiated, excess mitochondria are degraded, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from mitochondria is suppressed; as a result, the mitochondria escape oxidative damage. On the other hand, in nitrogen-starved mitophagy-deficient yeast, excess mitochondria are not degraded and the undegraded mitochondria spontaneously age and produce surplus ROS. The surplus ROS damage the mitochondria themselves and the damaged mitochondria produce more ROS in a vicious circle, ultimately leading to mitochondrial DNA deletion and the so-called "petitemutant" phenotype. Cells strictly regulate mitochondrial quantity and quality because mitochondria produce both necessary energy and harmful ROS. Mitophagy contributes to this process by eliminating the mitochondria to a basal level to fulfill cellular energy requirements and preventing excess ROS production.

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  • The physiological role of mitophagy: New insights into phosphorylation events 査読

    Yuko Hirota, Dongchon Kang, Tomotake Kanki

    International Journal of Cell Biology   2012   354914   2012年

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    記述言語:英語  

    Mitochondria play an essential role in oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid oxidation, and the regulation of apoptosis. However, this organelle also produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that continually inflict oxidative damage on mitochondrial DNA, proteins, and lipids, which causes further production of ROS. To oppose this oxidative stress, mitochondria possess quality control systems that include antioxidant enzymes and the repair or degradation of damaged mitochondrial DNA and proteins. If the oxidative stress exceeds the capacity of the mitochondrial quality control system, it seems that autophagy degrades the damaged mitochondria to maintain cellular homeostasis. Indeed, recent evidence from yeast to mammals indicates that the autophagy-dependent degradation of mitochondria (mitophagy) contributes to eliminate dysfunctional, aged, or excess mitochondria. In this paper, we describe the molecular processes and regulatory mechanisms of mitophagy in yeast and mammalian cells. Copyright 2012 Yuko Hirota et al.

    DOI: 10.1155/2012/354914

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  • Phosphorylation of Serine 114 on Atg32 mediates mitophagy 査読

    Yoshimasa Aoki, Tomotake Kanki, Yuko Hirota, Yusuke Kurihara, Tetsu Saigusa, Takeshi Uchiumi, Dongchon Kang

    MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL   22 ( 17 )   3206 - 3217   2011年9月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER SOC CELL BIOLOGY  

    Mitophagy, which selectively degrades mitochondria via autophagy, has a significant role in mitochondrial quality control. When mitophagy is induced in yeast, mitochondrial residential protein Atg32 binds Atg11, an adaptor protein for selective types of autophagy, and it is recruited into the vacuole along with mitochondria. The Atg11-Atg32 interaction is believed to be the initial molecular step in which the autophagic machinery recognizes mitochondria as a cargo, although how this interaction is mediated is poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the Atg11-Atg32 interaction in detail. We found that the C-terminus region of Atg11, which included the fourth coiled-coil domain, interacted with the N-terminus region of Atg32 (residues 100-120). When mitophagy was induced, Ser-114 and Ser-119 on Atg32 were phosphorylated, and then the phosphorylation of Atg32, especially phosphorylation of Ser-114 on Atg32, mediated the Atg11-Atg32 interaction and mitophagy. These findings suggest that cells can regulate the amount of mitochondria, or select specific mitochondria (damaged or aged) that are degraded by mitophagy, by controlling the activity and/or localization of the kinase that phosphorylates Atg32. We also found that Hog1 and Pbs2, which are involved in the osmoregulatory signal transduction cascade, are related to Atg32 phosphorylation and mitophagy.

    DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E11-02-0145

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  • Mitochondria Autophagy in Yeast 査読

    Tomotake Kanki, Daniel J. Klionsky, Koji Okamoto

    ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING   14 ( 10 )   1989 - 2001   2011年5月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC  

    The mitochondrion is an organelle that carries out a number of important metabolic processes such as fatty acid oxidation, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. However, this multitasking organelle also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause oxidative stress resulting in self-damage. This type of mitochondrial damage can lead to the further production of ROS and a resulting downward spiral with regard to mitochondrial capability. This is extremely problematic because the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria is related to aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Accordingly, appropriate quality control of this organelle is important to maintain proper cellular homeostasis. It has been thought that selective mitochondria autophagy (mitophagy) contributes to the maintenance of mitochondrial quality by eliminating damaged or excess mitochondria, although little is known about the mechanism. Recent studies in yeast identified several mitophagy-related proteins, which have been characterized with regard to their function and regulation. In this article, we review recent advances in the physiology and molecular mechanism of mitophagy and discuss the similarities and differences of this degradation process between yeast and mammalian cells. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1989-2001.

    DOI: 10.1089/ars.2010.3762

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  • Mitophagy: Selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy 査読

    Yuko Hirota, Yoshimasa Aoki, Tomotake Kanki

    Seikagaku   83 ( 2 )   126 - 130   2011年

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    記述言語:日本語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

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  • Nix, a receptor protein for mitophagy in mammals 査読

    Tomotake Kanki

    AUTOPHAGY   6 ( 3 )   433 - 435   2010年4月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:LANDES BIOSCIENCE  

    Mitochondria are important organelles that supply energy to the cell. However, these organelles are also the major source of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, the elimination of damaged or excess mitochondria is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Selective autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy) plays an important role in the quality control of mitochondria. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of mitophagy in mammalian cells. Nix is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein that is required for mitochondrial clearance during erythrocyte maturation. Recently, it was reported that Nix is a mitochondrial receptor that can directly connect to one of the autophagic machinery components, the Atg8 homologs LC3 and GABARAP.

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  • The molecular mechanism of mitochondria autophagy in yeast 査読

    Tomotake Kanki, Daniel J. Klionsky

    MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY   75 ( 4 )   795 - 800   2010年2月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC  

    P>Mitochondria are critical for supplying energy to the cell, but during catabolism this organelle also produces reactive oxygen species that can cause oxidative damage. Accordingly, quality control of mitochondria is important to maintain cellular homeostasis. It has been assumed that autophagy is the pathway for mitochondrial recycling, and that the selective degradation of mitochondria via autophagy (mitophagy) is the primary mechanism for mitochondrial quality control, although there is little experimental evidence to support this idea. Recent studies in yeast identified several mitophagy-related genes and have uncovered components involved in the molecular mechanism and regulation of mitophagy. Similarly, studies of Parkinson disease and reticulocyte maturation reveal that Parkin and Nix, respectively, are required for mitophagy in mammalian cells, and these analyses have revealed important physiological roles for mitophagy. Here, we review the current knowledge on mitophagy, in particular on the molecular mechanism and regulation of mitophagy in yeast. We also discuss some of the differences between yeast and mammalian mitophagy.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.07035.x

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  • A genomic screen for yeast mutants defective in mitophagy 査読

    Tomotake Kanki, Ke Wang, Daniel J. Klionsky

    AUTOPHAGY   6 ( 2 )   278 - 280   2010年2月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:LANDES BIOSCIENCE  

    Mitochondria autophagy(mitophagy) is the process of selective degradation of mitochondria that has an important role in mitochondrial quality control. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism of mitophagy, we screened a yeast knockout library for strains that are defective in mitophagy. We found 32 strains that showed a complete or partial block of mitophagy. One of the genes identified, YLR356W, is required for mitophagy, but not for macroautophagy or other types of selective autophagy. The deletion of YLR356W partially inhibits mitophagy during starvation, whereas there is almost complete inhibition at post-log phase. Accordingly, we hypothesize that Ylr356w is required to detect or present aged or dysfunctional mitochondria when cells reach the post-log phase.

    DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E09-03-0225

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  • Atg32 is a tag for mitochondria degradation in yeast 査読

    Tomotake Kanki, Daniel J. Klionsky

    AUTOPHAGY   5 ( 8 )   1201 - 1202   2009年11月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:LANDES BIOSCIENCE  

    The elimination of aged, damaged, or excess mitochondria is an important subcellular event to maintain proper cellular homeostasis. Recent studies reveal that autophagy-dependent degradation of mitochondria (mitophagy) plays an important role in removing these organelles. Very little is known, however, about the molecular mechanism of mitophagy. We found a novel protein, Atg32, that is required for mitophagy but not for other types of selective autophagy or nonselective autophagy. Atg32 is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein. When mitophagy is induced, Atg32 binds to Atg11, an adaptor protein for selective autophagy. Eventually, this interaction results in the recruitment of mitochondria to the vacuole for degradation.

    DOI: 10.4161/auto.5.8.9747

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  • Monitoring mitophagy in yeast The Om45-GFP processing assay 査読

    Tomotake Kanki, Dongchon Kang, Daniel J. Klionsky

    AUTOPHAGY   5 ( 8 )   1186 - 1189   2009年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:LANDES BIOSCIENCE  

    Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a ubiquitous degradative process in eukaryotic cells.' Mitochondria autophagy (mitophagy) is a type of specific autophagy that degrades mitochondria selectively.(2) Mitophagy is thought to play an important role for maintaining the quality of these organelles by eliminating damaged mitochondria, and it is involved in cellular differentiation, whereas dysfunctional mitophagy is related with neurodegenerative diseases;(3-5) however, the mechanism of mitophagy is poorly understood. To facilitate the analysis of mitophagy, we recently established a simple method to monitor mitophagy in yeast, the Om45-GFP processing assay.(6) Om45-GFP is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein. Following the uptake of mitochondria into the vacuole, Om45-GFP is degraded, releasing the intact form of GFP, which is detected by immunoblotting. Therefore, the amount of free GFP reflects the level of mitophagy.

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  • A Genomic Screen for Yeast Mutants Defective in Selective Mitochondria Autophagy 査読

    Tomotake Kanki, Ke Wang, Misuzu Baba, Clinton R. Bartholomew, Melinda A. Lynch-Day, Zhou Du, Jiefei Geng, Kai Mao, Zhifen Yang, Wei-Lien Yen, Daniel J. Klionsky

    MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL   20 ( 22 )   4730 - 4738   2009年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER SOC CELL BIOLOGY  

    Mitophagy is the process of selective mitochondrial degradation via autophagy, which has an important role in mitochondrial quality control. Very little is known, however, about the molecular mechanism of mitophagy. A genome-wide yeast mutant screen for mitophagy-defective strains identified 32 mutants with a block in mitophagy, in addition to the known autophagy-related (ATG) gene mutants. We further characterized one of these mutants, ylr356w Delta that corresponds to a gene whose function has not been identified. YLR356W is a mitophagy-specific gene that was not required for other types of selective autophagy or macroautophagy. The deletion of YLR356W partially inhibited mitophagy during starvation, whereas there was an almost complete inhibition at post-log phase. Accordingly, we have named this gene ATG33. The new mutants identified in this analysis will provide a useful foundation for researchers interested in the study of mitochondrial homeostasis and quality control.

    DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E09-03-0225

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  • [Molecular mechanism of mitochondria autophagy]. 査読

    Kanki T

    Fukuoka igaku zasshi = Hukuoka acta medica   100 ( 9 )   291 - 297   2009年9月

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  • Mitochondrial abnormalities drive cell death in Wolfram syndrome 2 査読

    Tomotake Kanki, Daniel J. Klionsky

    CELL RESEARCH   19 ( 8 )   922 - 923   2009年8月

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    記述言語:英語   出版者・発行元:INST BIOCHEMISTRY & CELL BIOLOGY  

    DOI: 10.1038/cr.2009.94

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  • Atg32 Is a Mitochondrial Protein that Confers Selectivity during Mitophagy 査読

    Tomotake Kanki, Ke Wang, Yang Cao, Misuzu Baba, Daniel J. Klionsky

    DEVELOPMENTAL CELL   17 ( 1 )   98 - 109   2009年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:CELL PRESS  

    Mitochondrial quality control is important in maintaining proper cellular homeostasis. Although selective mitochondrial degradation by autophagy (mitophagy) is suggested to have an important role in quality control, and though there is evidence for a direct relation between mitophagy and neurodegenerative diseases, the molecular mechanism of mitophagy is poorly understood. Using a screen for mitophagy-deficient mutants, we found that YIL146C/ECM37 is essential for mitophagy. This gene is not required for other types of selective autophagy or for nonspecific macroautophagy. We designated this autophagy-related (ATG) gene as ATG32. The Atg32 protein localizes on mitochondria. Following the induction of mitophagy, Atg32 binds Atg11, an adaptor protein for selective types of autophagy, and is then recruited to and imported into the vacuole along with mitochondria. Therefore, Atg32 confers selectivity for mitochondrial sequestration as a cargo and is necessary for recruitment of this organelle by the autophagy machinery for mitophagy.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2009.06.014

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  • Mitophagy in Yeast Occurs through a Selective Mechanism 査読

    Tomotake Kanki, Daniel J. Klionsky

    JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY   283 ( 47 )   32386 - 32393   2008年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC  

    The regulation of mitochondrial degradation through autophagy is expected to be a tightly controlled process, considering the significant role of this organelle in many processes ranging from energy production to cell death. However, very little is known about the specific nature of the degradation process. We developed a new method to detect mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) by fusing the green fluorescent protein at the C terminus of two endogenous mitochondrial proteins and monitored vacuolar release of green fluorescent protein. Using this method, we screened several atg mutants and found that ATG11, a gene that is essential only for selective autophagy, is also essential for mitophagy. In addition, we found that mitophagy is blocked even under severe starvation conditions, if the carbon source makes mitochondria essential for metabolism. These findings suggest that the degradation of mitochondria is a tightly regulated process and that these organelles are largely protected from nonspecific autophagic degradation.

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  • Reverse of age-dependent memory impairment and mitochondrial DNA damage in microglia by an overexpression of human mitochondrial transcription factor A in mice 査読

    Yoshinori Hayashi, Masayoshi Yoshida, Mayumi Yamato, Tomomi Ide, Zhou Wu, Mayumi Ochi-Shindou, Tomotake Kanki, Dongchon Kang, Kenji Sunagawa, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Hiroshi Nakanishi

    JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE   28 ( 34 )   8624 - 8634   2008年8月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:SOC NEUROSCIENCE  

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is highly susceptible to injury induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). During aging, mutations of mtDNA accumulate to induce dysfunction of the respiratory chain, resulting in the enhanced ROS production. Therefore, age-dependent memory impairment may result from oxidative stress derived from the respiratory chain. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is now known to have roles not only in the replication of mtDNA but also its maintenance. We herein report that an overexpression of TFAM in HeLa cells significantly inhibited rotenone-induced mitochondrial ROS generation and the subsequent NF-kappa B (nuclear factor-kappa B) nuclear translocation. Furthermore, TFAM transgenic (TG) mice exhibited a prominent amelioration of an age-dependent accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and a decline in the activities of complexes I and IV in the brain. In the aged TG mice, deficits of the motor learning memory, the working memory, and the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) were also significantly improved. The expression level of interleukin-1 beta(IL-1 beta) and mtDNA damages, which were predominantly found in microglia, significantly decreased in the aged TG mice. The IL-1 beta amount markedly increased in the brain of the TG mice after treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), whereas its mean amount was significantly lower than that of the LPS-treated aged wild-type mice. At the same time, an increased mtDNA damage in microglia and an impaired hippocampal LTP were also observed in the LPS-treated aged TG mice. Together, an overexpression of TFAM is therefore considered to ameliorate age-dependent impairment of the brain functions through the prevention of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in microglia.

    DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1957-08.2008

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  • The C-terminal tail of mitochondrial transcription factor A markedly strengthens its general binding to DNA 査読

    Kippei Ohgaki, Tomotake Kanki, Atsushi Fukuoh, Hironori Kurisaki, Yoshimasa Aoki, Masaki Ikeuchi, Sang Ho Kim, Naotaka Hamasaki, Dongchon Kang

    JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY   141 ( 2 )   201 - 211   2007年2月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:OXFORD UNIV PRESS  

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) contains a basic C-terminal tail which is essential for the promoter-specific transcription. TFAM is also a major component of a protein-mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) complex, called nucleoid, as a non-specific DNA-binding protein. However, little is known about a role of the C-tail in the nucleoid. Overexpression of full-length TFAM decreased the amount of a D-loop form of mtDNA in cells, while overexpression of TFAM lacking its C-tail (TFAM-AC) did not, suggesting that the C-tail is involved in destabilization or formation of the D-loop. An mRNA for mtDNA-derived ND1 was hardly decreased in the former but rather decreased in the latter. Given that the D-loop formation is coupled with the transcription, the decrease in the D-loop is likely due to its destabilization. The recombinant full-length TFAM much strongly unwound DNA than TFAM-AC, which is consistent with the above idea because D-loop is resolved by unwinding of the supercoiling state. Notably, truncation of the C-tail decreased DNA-binding activity of TFAM by three orders of magnitude. Thus, the C-terminal tail of TFAM is important for the strong general binding to mtDNA. This strong DNA-binding conferred by the C-tail may play an important role in the nucleoid structure.

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  • Leigh syndrome with nephropathy and CoQ(10) deficiency due to decaprenyl diphosphate synthase subunit 2 (PDSS2) mutations 査読

    Luis Carlos Lopez, Markus Schuelke, Catarina M. Quinzii, Tomotake Kanki, Richard J. T. Rodenburg, Ali Naini, Salvatore DiMauro, Michio Hirano

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   79 ( 6 )   1125 - 1129   2006年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:UNIV CHICAGO PRESS  

    Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) is a vital lipophilic molecule that transfers electrons from mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and II to complex III. Deficiency of CoQ(10) has been associated with diverse clinical phenotypes, but, in most patients, the molecular cause is unknown. The first defect in a CoQ(10) biosynthetic gene, COQ2, was identified in a child with encephalomyopathy and nephrotic syndrome and in a younger sibling with only nephropathy. Here, we describe an infant with severe Leigh syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, and CoQ(10) deficiency in muscle and fibroblasts and compound heterozygous mutations in the PDSS2 gene, which encodes a subunit of decaprenyl diphosphate synthase, the first enzyme of the CoQ(10) biosynthetic pathway. Biochemical assays with radiolabeled substrates indicated a severe defect in decaprenyl diphosphate synthase in the patient's fibroblasts. This is the first description of pathogenic mutations in PDSS2 and confirms the molecular and clinical heterogeneity of primary CoQ(10) deficiency.

    DOI: 10.1086/510023

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  • PDIP38 associates with proteins constituting the mitochondrial DNA nucleoid 査読

    XL Cheng, T Kanki, A Fukuoh, K Ohgaki, R Takeya, Y Aoki, N Hamasaki, DC Kang

    JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY   138 ( 6 )   673 - 678   2005年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:JAPANESE BIOCHEMICAL SOC  

    Human mitochondrial DNA takes on a large protein-DNA complex called a nucleoid or mitochromosome. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a major component of the complex. During an attempt to search for proteins associated with the TFAM-containing complex by a proteomic method, we found one protein that has not been considered to be mitochondrial: PDIP38. PDIP38 was initially identified as a binding protein to nuclear DNA polymerase delta. PDIP38 is almost exclusively recovered from the mitochondrial fraction of human HeLa cells. PDIP38 is completely cleaved when TritonX-100-solubilized mitochondria are treated with proteinase K, but not when mitoplasts devoid of outer membranes are treated, indicating that PDIP38 is located in the mitochondrial matrix. TFAM and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSB) are co-immunoprecipitated with PDIP38 by anti-PDIP38 antibodies. On the other hand, only the latter is crosslinked to PDIP38 when mitochondria are treated with a crosslinker, formaldehyde. In addition to mtSSB, 60 kDa heat shock protein and a Lon protease homolog, both of which have single-stranded DNA binding activity, are also crosslinked. PDIP38 associates with the nucleoid components and could be involved in the metabolism of mitochondrial DNA.

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  • Architectural role of mitochondrial transcription factor A in maintenance of human mitochondrial DNA 査読

    T Kanki, K Ohgaki, M Gaspari, CM Gustafsson, A Fukuoh, N Sasaki, N Hamasaki, DC Kang

    MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY   24 ( 22 )   9823 - 9834   2004年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY  

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a transcription factor for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that also possesses the property of nonspecific DNA binding, is essential for maintenance of mtDNA. To clarify the role of TFAM, we repressed the expression of endogenous TFAM in HeLa cells by RNA interference. The amount of TFAM decreased maximally to about 15% of the normal level at day 3 after RNA interference and then recovered gradually. The amount of mtDNA changed closely in parallel with the daily change in TFAM while in organello transcription of mtDNA at day 3 was maintained at about 50% of the normal level. TFAM lacking its C-terminal 25 amino acids (TFAM-DeltaC) marginally activated transcription in vitro. When TFAM-DeltaC was expressed at levels comparable to those of endogenous TFAM in HeLa cells, mtDNA increased twofold, suggesting that TFAM-DeltaC is as competent in maintaining mtDNA as endogenous TFAM under these conditions. The in organello transcription of TFAM-DeltaC-expressing cells was no more than that in the control. Thus, the mtDNA amount is finely correlated with the amount of TFAM but not with the transcription level. We discuss an architectural role for TFAM in the maintenance of mtDNA in addition to its role in transcription activation.

    DOI: 10.1128/MCB.24.22.9823-9834.2004

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  • Mitochondrial nucleoid and transcription factor A 査読

    T Kanki, H Nakayama, N Sasaki, K Takio, TI Alam, N Hamasaki, D Kang

    MITOCHONDRIAL PATHOGENESIS: FROM GENES AND APOPTOSIS TO AGING AND DISEASE   1011   61 - 68   2004年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:NEW YORK ACAD SCIENCES  

    Nuclear DNA is tightly packed into nucleosomal structure. In contrast, human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) had long been believed to be rather naked because mitochondria lack histone. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TEAM), a member of a high mobility group (HMG) protein family and a first-identified mitochondrial transcription factor, is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. Abf2, a yeast counterpart of human TFAM, is abundant enough to cover the whole region of mtDNA and to play a histone-like role in mitochondria. Human TFAM is indeed as abundant as Abf2, suggesting that TFAM also has a histone-like architectural role for maintenance of mtDNA. When human mitochondria are solubilized with non-ionic detergent Nonidet-P40 and then separated into soluble and particulate fractions, most TFAM is recovered from the particulate fraction together with mtDNA, suggesting that human mtDNA forms a nucleoid structure. TFAM is tightly associated with mtDNA as a main component of the nucleoid.

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  • Human mitochondrial DNA is packaged with TFAM 査読

    TI Alam, T Kanki, T Muta, K Ukaji, Y Abe, H Nakayama, K Takio, N Hamasaki, DC Kang

    NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH   31 ( 6 )   1640 - 1645   2003年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:OXFORD UNIV PRESS  

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a member of the high mobility group proteins, is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Most TFAM and mtDNA (both of which are normally soluble) was recovered from the particulate fraction of human placental mitochondria when extracted with the non-ionic detergent Nonidet P-40. mtDNA and TFAM were co-immunoprecipitated by anti-TFAM antibodies. TFAM was released into the supernatant by DNase I digestion of mtDNA in the particulate fraction. Thus, TFAM and mtDNA are tightly associated with each other, and it is likely that few TFAM or mtDNA molecules exist in an unbound form in mitochondria. Based on the fact that TFAM is abundant enough to wrap mtDNA entirely, these results suggest that human mtDNA is packaged with TFAM.

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  • The N-terminal region of the transmembrane domain of human erythrocyte band 3 - Residues critical for membrane insertion and transport activity 査読

    T Kanki, MT Young, M Sakaguchi, N Hamasaki, MJA Tanner

    JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY   278 ( 8 )   5564 - 5573   2003年2月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC  

    We studied the role of the N-terminal region of the transmembrane domain of the human erythrocyte anion exchanger (band 3; residues 361-408) in the insertion, folding, and assembly of the first transmembrane span (TM1) to give rise to a transport-active molecule. We focused on the sequence around the 9-amino acid region deleted in Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (Ala-400 to Ala-408), which gives rise to nonfunctional band 3, and also on the portion of the protein N-terminal to the transmembrane domain (amino acids 361-396). We examined the effects of mutations in these regions on endoplasmic reticulum. insertion (using cell-free translation), chloride transport, and cell-surface movement in Xenopus oocytes. We found that the hydrophobic length of TM1 was critical for membrane insertion and that formation of a transport-active structure also depended on the presence of specific amino acid sequences in TM1. Deletions of 2 or 3 amino acids including Pro-403 retained transport activity provided that a polar residue was located 2 or 3 amino acids on the C-terminal side of Asp-399. Finally, deletion of the cytoplasmic surface sequence G(381) LVRD abolished chloride transport, but not surface expression, indicating that this sequence makes an essential structural contribution to the anion transport site of band 3.

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  • The tenth membrane region of band 3 is initially exposed to the luminal side of the endoplasmic reticulum and then integrated into a partially folded band 3 intermediate 査読

    T Kanki, M Sakaguchi, A Kitamura, T Sato, K Mihara, N Hamasaki

    BIOCHEMISTRY   41 ( 47 )   13973 - 13981   2002年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:AMER CHEMICAL SOC  

    Band 3 is a typical polytopic membrane protein that mediates anion exchange activity [anion exchanger 1 (AE1)]. Although the topology and topogenesis of similar to40 residues just after transmembrane (TM) 9 have been extensively studied, the topogenesis of this region [tenth region (10thR)] has been unclear. Glycosylation sites created in the 10thR were efficiently glycosylated in a cell-free transcription/ translation system, whereas the glycosylation efficiencies were quite low in a cultured cell system. When TM12-14 was deleted or when cycloheximide was added to the culture medium, however, the glycosylation efficiency in the cultured cells increased to the same level as in the cell-free system, indicating that TM12 is essential for the sequestration from oligosaccharyl transferase into membrane and that cycloheximide treatment of the cells can mimic the cell-free system by reducing the rate of chain elongation. The glycosylation efficiency in cultured cells also increased with deletion of TM1-3. These results suggest that the 10thR is transiently extruded into the lumen and then inserted into the membrane. Both TM12 and the distant TM1-3 affect the membrane insertion of the 10thR. This indicates that during the folding of the protein, the 10thR is inserted into the membrane after the TM1-12 segments are properly assembled.

    DOI: 10.1021/bi026619q

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  • Diffusion-weighted images and vasogenic edema in eclampsia 査読

    Tomotake Kanki, Kiyomi Tsukimori, Futoshi Mihara, Hitoo Nakano

    Obstetrics and Gynecology   93 ( 5 )   821 - 823   1999年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    Background: In eclampsia, it is mandatory to recognize specific cerebrovascular complications before initiation of treatment. Diffusion- weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new technique that differentiates between cerebral infarction and hypertensive encephalopathy with vasogenic edema. Case: A 23-year-old primigravida developed eclampsia at 29 weeks' gestation. Focal neurologic signs and neuroimaging findings by computed tomography and MRI were consistent with acute infarction or vasogenic edema. Diffusion-weighted MRI did not show an abnormal signal, indicating vasogenic edema. Control of the severe hypertension without anticoagulation therapy was begun. After delivery, the woman's neurologic abnormalities disappeared. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MRI differentiated between cerebral infarction and vasogenic edema, helping in the management of eclampsia.

    DOI: 10.1016/S0029-7844(98)00575-4

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▶ 全件表示

書籍等出版物

  • Handbook of Famine, Starvation, and Nutrient Deprivation || Chapter 64-1

    ( 担当: 共著)

    2017年8月 

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  • AUTOPHAGY: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, and Infection Volume 4: Mitophagy

    ( 担当: 共著)

    2014年8月 

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MISC

  • リン酸化が制御する出芽酵母のマイトファジー

    古川 健太郎, 神吉 智丈

    生化学   91 ( 2 )   224 - 227   2019年4月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:(公社)日本生化学会  

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  • 【オートファジーと疾患】 ミトコンドリア恒常性の維持とマイトファジー

    山下 俊一, 神吉 智丈

    BIO Clinica   33 ( 7 )   617 - 621   2018年7月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:(株)北隆館  

    マイトファジーは、異常なミトコンドリアを分解することでミトコンドリア恒常性の維持に寄与している。マイトファジーには、ParkinとPINK1が関与する経路と、マイトファジーレセプターが関与する経路に大別される。Parkin-PINK1依存的マイトファジーの発見は、パーキンソン病の原因が異常ミトコンドリアの蓄積であることを示唆している。一方、マイトファジーレセプターNIXを介したマイトファジーは赤血球の正常な分化に必要であり、NIX欠損マウスでは貧血性疾患が見られる。このように、マイトファジーの破綻が様々な疾患の原因となることが知られている。(著者抄録)

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  • 広義原発開放隅角緑内障の原因遺伝子オプチニューリン遺伝子の変異とミトコンドリア恒常性維持機構との関係

    CHERNYSHOVA Kseniia, CHERNYSHOVA Kseniia, 山下俊一, 五十嵐遼子, 五十嵐遼子, 福地健郎, 神吉智丈

    日本緑内障学会抄録集   29th   2018年

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  • 【オートファジーと疾患】 Parkinに依存しないマイトファジー

    神吉 智丈

    最新医学   72 ( 2 )   205 - 210   2017年2月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:(株)最新医学社  

    マイトファジーは,オートファジーによる選択的ミトコンドリア分解機構である.パーキンソン病の原因遺伝子産物であるParkinとPINK1は重要なマイトファジー因子であり,精力的に研究されてきた.一方で,ParkinやPINK1がすべてのマイトファジーに必要ではなく,これらに依存しないマイトファジーの理解も重要である.ここでは,Parkinに依存しないマイトファジーに関して概説する.(著者抄録)

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  • Digestシリーズ オートファジー その発見から未解決問題まで(Vol.4) 選択的オートファジー

    神吉 智丈

    Medical Science Digest   42 ( 10 )   442 - 444   2016年9月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:(株)ニュー・サイエンス社  

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  • 酵母におけるマイトファジーの分子機構と生理的役割

    古川 健太郎, 神吉 智丈

    化学と生物   54 ( 4 )   266 - 272   2016年3月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:(公社)日本農芸化学会  

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  • Mitophagy in yeast: Molecular mechanisms and physiological role

    Tomotake Kanki, Kentaro Furukawa, Shun-ichi Yamashita

    BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH   1853 ( 10 )   2756 - 2765   2015年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:書評論文,書評,文献紹介等   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV  

    Mitochondria autophagy (mitophagy) is a process that selectively degrades mitochondria via autophagy. Recently, there has been significant progress in the understanding of mitophagy in yeast. Atg32, a mitochondrial outer membrane receptor, is indispensable for mitophagy. Phosphorylation of Atg32 is an initial cue for selective mitochondrial degradation. Atg32 expression and phosphorylation regulate the induction and efficiency of mitophagy. In addition to Atg32-related processes, recent studies have revealed that mitochondrial fission and the mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact site may play important roles in mitophagy. Mitochondrial fission is required to regulate mitochondrial size. Mitochondria-ER contact is mediated by the ER-mitochondria encounter structure and is important to supply lipids from the ER for autophagosome biogenesis for mitophagy. Mitophagy is physiologically important for regulating the number of mitochondria, diminishing mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, and extending chronological lifespan under caloric restriction. These findings suggest that mitophagy contributes to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. However, whether mitophagy selectively degrades damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria in yeast is unknown. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitophagy. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2015.01.005

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  • ミトコンドリアオートファジー ミトコンドリア恒常性維持機構

    神吉 智丈

    新潟医学会雑誌   127 ( 12 )   645 - 648   2013年12月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:新潟医学会  

    ミトコンドリアは、細胞活動に必須なATPの大部分を作り出す重要なオルガネラである。その機能が維持されること、即ち、ミトコンドリア恒常性維持は、細胞が正常に機能するため必須である。私たちは、新しいミトコンドリア恒常性維持機構としてミトコンドリアオートファジー(マイトファジー)に着目し研究を行ってきた。ここでは、これまでに明らかにされてきた、マイトファジーの生理的意義、疾患との関わり、分子機構を概説し、私たちが目指している、マイトファジーを用いた疾患治療への応用の可能性について簡単に紹介したい。(著者抄録)

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  • マイトファジー ミトコンドリアを選択的に分解する機構

    神吉 智丈

    新潟県医師会報   ( 754 )   2 - 6   2013年1月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:新潟県医師会  

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  • 培養細胞を用いたオートファジーの活性測定法の開発とその臨床応用

    神吉 智丈, 康 東天

    臨床病理   59 ( 補冊 )   114 - 114   2011年10月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:日本臨床検査医学会  

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  • 生化学・分子生物学 マイトファジー 基礎から臨床応用まで

    神吉 智丈, 康 東天

    医学のあゆみ   238 ( 4 )   342 - 343   2011年7月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:医歯薬出版(株)  

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  • オートファジーによるミトコンドリア分解機構

    廣田 有子, 青木 義政, 神吉 智丈

    生化学   83 ( 2 )   126 - 130   2011年2月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:(公社)日本生化学会  

    出芽酵母の研究から、ミトコンドリアのオートファジーによる選択的な分解機構が明らかになりつつある。一方、哺乳類細胞の研究から、マイトファジー(オートファジーによるミトコンドリア分解)が機能低下したミトコンドリアを除去するというミトコンドリア品質管理に貢献していることが明らかになってきている。著者等は出芽酵母から、マイトファジー関連遺伝子としてATG32、ATG33を同定した。

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  • ミトコンドリアオートファジーの分子機構

    神吉 智丈

    福岡医学雑誌   100 ( 9 )   291 - 297   2009年9月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:福岡医学会  

    オートファジーは飢餓を含む様々な細胞ストレスにより誘導される。ミトコンドリアのオートファジー(マイトファジー)は選択的オートファジーの一種で、傷害をうけたミトコンドリアを除去し、ミトコンドリア傷害の蓄積に起因する老化や神経変性疾患から個体を防御する機能があると考えられている。オートファジーの概論と、酵母を用いて行ったマイトファジーの解析、現在までに明らかにされてきたマイトファジーのメカニズムについて概説した。

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  • Leigh syndrome with nephropathy and CoQ10 deficiency due to decaprenyl diphosphate synthase subunit 2 (PDSS2) mutations

    Luis Carlos Lopez, Markus Schuelke, Catarina Quinzii Hirano, Tomotake Kanki, Richard R. J. Rodenburg, Ali Naini, Salvatore Di Mauro, Michio Hirano

    NEUROLOGY   68 ( 12 )   A202 - A202   2007年3月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究発表ペーパー・要旨(国際会議)   出版者・発行元:LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS  

    Web of Science

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  • 偽膜性腸炎を契機に中毒性巨大結腸症,腸穿孔をきたした1例

    秦 奈峰子, 丸山 智義, 坂井 邦裕, 神吉 智丈, 秦 健一郎, 尼田 覚, 平川 俊夫, 加来 恒壽, 中野 仁雄

    日本産科婦人科学会雑誌   52 ( 10 )   1477 - 1481   2000年10月

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    記述言語:日本語   出版者・発行元:(公社)日本産科婦人科学会  

    子宮頸癌放射線治療後の直腸腟瘻に対する人工肛門造設術後に偽膜性腸炎を発症し中毒性巨大結腸症,腸穿孔を続発した60歳症例を経験した.本症例では偽膜性腸炎の発症後早期に診断し,薬物療法を行い,CRP値が低下し,便細菌培養およびCDトキシンが陰性化したにも拘わらず中毒性巨大結腸症,さらには腸穿孔をきたし外科的治療を必要とした.これは,炎症が高度で,全層に及び漿膜まで波及していたために,炎症が鎮静化した時点で既に筋は弛緩し腸管は拡張していたものと考えられる.また偽膜性腸炎の発症と炎症の重症化に,汎血球減少という宿主側の生体防御能の低下も大きく関与していた可能性が考えられた

    CiNii Article

    CiNii Books

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    その他リンク: https://projects.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=repository_uri&item_id=428429

▶ 全件表示

受賞

  • 文部科学大臣表彰若手科学者賞

    2012年4月   文部科学省  

    神吉 智丈

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